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6.6 Conclusion

We have seen three cases of interface so far: an interface situation in the field of development of an indigenous community, an interface situation of a food culture at the beginning of Meiji era and an interface situation of deployment of McDonald's in post-war Japan. In all three cases, the common phenomenon is abstracted of a displacement in translation of the meanings of an external culture, which arrives at and encompasses the traditional culture. Seeing from transcendental point of view, not from transcendent point of view, entrepreneurs not only act as middlemen and mediators in the border domain of plural cultural systems but also act internally to transform the meanings of external systems and appropriate it in favour of the internal system. This whole process I call translative adaptation (Maegawa 1994a, 1996b, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000).

The field of development requires management of some kind. We have also seen the aspect of a traditional society where business management of production is closely tied up with the management of consumption (Sahlins 1992, 1993, 1996; Maegawa 1996a). The whole process is assumed to be executed as a ie-like system.

Cultural interface at the beginning of the modern era in Japan is relatively simple, while contemporary cultural interface is complex and multilayered. As the case of McDonald's has shown, entrepreneurs as actors often play main roles of dynamics in cultural interface. They are required to grasp multiplicity of cultural interface reflexively and manage to coordinate interactions in it. Otherwise, they won't be able to survive.

This task is common to any entrepreneurs acting in cultural interface, either in the case of a small fishing company of indigenous people in Australia or a global multinational corporation like McDonald's.

 
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