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Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World - Christian C. Voigt

Year 2016


Chapter 1 Bats in the Anthropocene1.1 Bats in the Anthropocene: The Conservation of a Nocturnal Taxon1.2 Why Care About Bat Conservation?1.3 About This BookReferencesPart I Bats in Anthropogenically Changed LandscapesChapter 2 Urbanisation and Its Effects on Bats—A Global Meta-Analysis2.1 Introduction2.1.1 The Urban Context2.1.2 Urban Wildlife2.1.3 Bats in Urban Environments2.2 Evidence-Based Evaluation of the Effect of Urbanisation on Bats Worldwide Using a Meta-Analysis2.2.1 Data Acquisition and Meta-Analysis2.2.2 High Versus Lower Levels of Urbanisation2.2.3 Phylogeny Versus Functional Ecology2.2.4 Contrasting the Effects between North and South America and Europe, Asia and Australia Focusing on Insectivores2.3 Adaptability of Species to Urban Areas: General Trends, Species-Specific Differences and Future ResearchReferencesChapter 3 Bats and Roads3.1 Introduction3.1.1 Bat Life History3.1.2 Bat Conservation Status3.2 The Effects of Roads on Bats—Habitat Destruction, Fragmentation, Degradation and Collision Mortality3.2.1 Loss of Habitat3.2.2 The Barrier Effect3.2.3 Roadkill3.2.4 Habitat Degradation—Light, Noise and Chemical Pollution3.2.5 Species-Specific Effects3.2.6 Road Class and Speed3.2.7 Cumulative Effects, Extinction Debt and the Importance of Scale3.2.8 Secondary Effects—Infill and Increased Urban and Industrial Development3.3 Can Roads Benefit Bats?3.4 Conservation in Principle: Avoidance, Mitigation, Compensation and Enhancement3.5 Conservation in Practice3.5.1 Over-the-Road Methods: Gantries, Green Bridges, Hop-Overs and Adapted Road/Foot Bridges3.5.2 Under-the-Road Methods: Underpasses, Culverts and Other 'Tunnels'3.5.3 Light Avoidance3.5.4 The Importance of Connectivity and the Maintenance of Existing Flightlines3.5.5 Habitat Improvement and Effective Landscape-Scale Planning3.5.6 RailReferencesChapter 4 Responses of Tropical Bats to Habitat Fragmentation, Logging, and Deforestation4.1 Habitat Conversion: A Key Aspect of Global Change4.2 Tropical Bats in a Changing World4.3 Review Methodology4.4 Biases in Our Understanding of Responses of Tropical Bats to Habitat Alteration4.5 Responses at the Population and Assemblage Level4.5.1 Habitat Fragmentation4.5.1.1 General Patterns4.5.1.2 Area and Isolation Effects4.5.1.3 Responses to Landscape Structure4.5.1.4 Spatial and Temporal Scale Dependence in Responses to Fragmentation4.5.1.5 Edge Effects4.5.2 Logging4.5.3 Secondary Forests and Succession4.5.4 Agroforestry Systems4.5.5 Tree Plantations4.5.6 Agriculture and Residual Tree Cover4.6 Genetic Consequences4.7 Behavioral Responses4.8 Effects on Selected Species Interactions4.9 General Conclusions and Future Research DirectionsReferencesChapter 5 Insectivorous Bats and Silviculture: Balancing Timber Production and Bat Conservation5.1 Introduction5.2 Major Forest Areas5.2.1 North America5.2.2 Europe5.2.3 Australia5.3 Complexity of Bat Habitat Needs5.3.1 Mature, Large Diameter Trees5.3.2 Deadwood Availability and Hollow Tree Density5.3.3 Understory Vegetation5.3.4 Slope and Aspect5.3.5 Forest Edge5.4 Bat Responses to Silvicultural Treatments5.4.1 Logging5.4.1.1 Clearcut and Deferment Harvests5.4.1.2 Variable Retention Harvests5.4.1.3 Group Selection Harvests5.4.1.4 Salvage Logging5.4.2 Recovery Times After Timber Harvest5.4.3 Thinning Young Forests5.4.4 Harvest Exclusion Areas5.4.5 Plantations5.4.6 Prey5.5 Multi-spatial Scale Forest Management5.6 Summary and Future PossibilitiesGlossaryReferencesChapter 6 Bats in the Anthropogenic Matrix:6.1 Introduction6.2 Methods6.3 Effects of Agricultural Intensity on Bat Assemblage Structure, Behavior, and Ecology6.4 Pesticide Impacts on Bat Populations6.5 Ecosystem Services Provided by Bats in Agricultural Systems6.5.1 Insectivorous Bats and Pest Limitation6.5.2 Nectarivorous Bats and Pollination Services6.6 The Issue of Ecosystem Disservices of Bats to Agricultural Production6.7 Discussion6.7.1 Sparing, Sharing, and the Devaluation of Manufactured Capital6.8 Research Priorities6.8.1 Filling in Biogeographical Knowledge Gaps6.8.2 Linking Farm Management, Ecosystem Services, and Landscape-Level Processes6.8.3 Pest Suppression in the Face of Climate Change, Pesticides, and GM Crops6.8.4 Quantifying Impact and Value Across Crops and Biomes6.8.5 Changing Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Bats in the Developing WorldReferencesChapter 7 Dark Matters: The Effects of Artificial Lighting on Bats7.1 Introduction7.2 Types of Artificial Light7.3 The Growth of Light Pollution7.4 Projected Changes in Technology7.5 The Biological Effects of Light Pollution7.5.1 Impacts of Light Pollution on Intraand Inter-specific Competition7.5.2 Effects of Artificial Light on Physiological Homeostasis7.5.3 Interference of Light Pollution with Nocturnal Navigation7.6 Bat Vision7.7 Observational Studies on Bats at Street Lights7.8 Experimental Studies on Bats at Street Lights7.9 Winners and Losers: Light-Tolerant and Light-Averse Bats7.10 Effects of Light Pollution on Ecosystem Services Provided by Bats7.11 Knowledge Gaps, Future Challenges and Mitigation Strategies7.11.1 Knowledge Gaps7.11.2 Mitigation Strategies7.11.3 Future ChallengesReferencesChapter 8 Bats and Water: Anthropogenic Alterations Threaten Global Bat Populations8.1 General Introduction8.2 Ecology of Bats and Water in Drylands Environments8.2.1 Water Sources Used by Bats8.2.2 Bodies of Water as a Drinking Source8.2.3 Bodies of Water as a Foraging Habitat8.2.4 Water, Roosts and Reproduction8.3 Threats to Water Sources Used by Bats8.3.1 Loss of Sources of Water8.3.2 Mining8.3.3 Agriculture8.3.4 Waste Water8.4 Mitigation and Restoration8.4.1 Restoration of Water Sources and Related Habitats8.4.2 Artificial Water Sources8.5 Conclusion and Future DirectionsReferencesPart II Emerging DisesasesChapter 9 White-Nose Syndrome in Bats9.1 Introduction9.2 Disease Mechanisms9.3 Disease Ecology of WNS9.4 Status of P. Destructans/WNS in Europe9.5 Conservation and Management9.6 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 10 Zoonotic Viruses and Conservation of Bats10.1 Introduction10.2 Emerging Viral Diseases: Why Bats?10.3 Zoonotic Viruses of Bats and Their SpillOver10.3.1 Rhabdoviruses10.3.2 Paramyxoviruses10.3.3 Coronaviruses10.3.4 Filoviruses10.4 Main Conservation Issues Related to Bat Viruses10.4.1 Direct Effect: Viruses Killing Bats10.4.2 Indirect Effects: Biased Public Perception10.4.3 Indirect Effect—Culling10.4.4 Indirect Effect—Killing of Bats for Virus Surveys10.5 Counter Measures in Favour of Bat Conservation10.5.1 Preventing the Emergence of New Viral Diseases10.5.2 Educational Efforts10.5.3 Environmental Conservation10.5.4 Conservation of Bat Populations and Population Dynamics10.6 ConclusionReferencesPart III Human-Bat ConflictsChapter 11 Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective11.1 Introduction11.2 Composition and Estimates of Bat Fatalities11.2.1 North America11.2.2 Europe11.2.3 Africa11.2.4 New Zealand and Australia11.2.5 South America, Central America, and the Caribbean11.2.6 Asia11.2.7 Conclusions11.3 Patterns of Bat Fatality11.3.1 Temporal Patterns11.3.2 Spatial Patterns11.3.3 Habitat Relationships11.3.4 Climate and Weather Variables11.4 Offshore Wind Facilities11.5 Estimating Risk11.6 Cumulative Impacts11.7 Mitigating Bat Mortality11.8 Conservation Policy11.9 Future DirectionsReferencesChapter 12 Exploitation of Bats for Bushmeat and Medicine12.1 Introduction12.2 Background12.2.1 Overview of Bat Hunting12.2.2 Hunting Overview by Region12.2.2.1 Africa12.2.2.2 Asia12.2.2.3 Pacific (Oceania) South America12.3 Why Bat Hunting is a Conservation Problem12.3.1 Negative Impacts on Bat Populations and Ecosystems12.3.2 Negative Impacts on Humans12.4 Overhunting as a Growing Concern for Conservation12.5 How Hunting Affects Bats12.5.1 Expert Opinion12.5.2 Determining Hunting Impacts on Bat Populations12.5.3 Measuring Hunting Mortality Rates12.5.4 Estimating Hunting Impact from Population Declines12.6 Conservation Management to Mitigate Hunting Impacts12.6.1 Enforcement of Hunting Prohibition12.6.2 Regulated Hunting12.6.3 Control of Guns, Ammunition, and Other Bat Hunting Tools12.6.4 Roost Site Protection12.6.5 Education and Awareness Raising12.6.5.1 Knowledge12.6.5.2 Behavior—Local Commitment to Conservation of Bats and Bat Habitat12.6.5.3 Capacity Building of Local Rangers/PA Managers12.6.6 Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Science12.7 Recommendations for Conservation of Hunted Bats12.7.1 More Research is Needed to Understand Hunting Impacts12.7.2 Research to Understand How to Protect Bats12.7.3 Education/Outreach12.7.4 Protect Colony Locations at the Roost12.7.5 Regulated Hunting12.7.6 Encourage Local Researchers and NGO's12.8 ConclusionAppendix. List of Hunted Bat Species Showing Primary Use (Food or Medicine), Summarized by Region and Country. We Followed IUCN Regional ClassificationReferencesChapter 13 The Conflict Between Pteropodid Bats and Fruit Growers: Species, Legislation and Mitigation13.1 Introduction13.2 The Extent of Feeding by Bats on Fruit Crops and Its Implications13.2.1 The Mediterranean13.2.2 Africa and the Indian Ocean13.2.3 Indian Subcontinent13.2.4 Southeast Asia13.2.5 Australia and Papua New Guinea13.2.6 The Pacific13.3 Food-Borne Zoonotic Disease Risk from Pteropodid Bats13.4 Legislative Approach to Reducing Pteropodid Damage to Crops13.4.1 Australia13.4.2 Cyprus13.4.3 Israel13.4.4 Japan13.4.5 Malaysia13.4.6 Mauritius and Madagascar13.4.7 South Asia13.4.8 Thailand13.5 Non-lethal Methods of Mitigation13.5.1 Netting and Associated Tree Management13.5.2 Decoy Crops13.5.3 Deterrents/Aversion Agents13.5.4 Combined Methods of Mitigation13.5.5 Biological Control Agent—Weaver Ants Oecophylla longinoda13.6 Recommendations and Issues for Future Consideration13.6.1 Better Knowledge of Pteropodid Diet and Foraging Preferences13.6.2 Funding Interventions and Research to Mitigate the Pteropodid–Grower Conflict13.6.3 Education of Growers and the Public13.7 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 14 Bats and Buildings: The Conservation of Synanthropic Bats14.1 Introduction14.1.1 What Is the Purpose of This Review?14.1.2 Relevant Natural History Features of Synanthropic Bats14.1.3 Which Bat Species Use Buildings?14.1.4 Human–Bat Conflict in Buildings and the Legal Protection of Synanthropic Bats14.2 How Do Bats Find and Use Buildings?14.2.1 Buildings as Foraging Sites14.2.2 Buildings as Shelters During Foraging Bouts14.2.3 Buildings as Maternity Roosts14.2.4 Buildings as Swarming Sites14.2.5 Buildings as Hibernacula14.3 Benefits of a Synanthropic Lifestyle in Bats14.3.1 Increased Fitness of Bats Using Buildings14.3.2 Enhanced Access to Habitats by Using Buildings as Ecological Stepping Stones14.3.3 Expansion of Geographic Ranges14.4 Negative Consequences of a Synanthropic Lifestyle in Bats14.4.1 Decreased Fitness Owing to Direct Threats14.4.2 Decreased Fitness Owing to Indirect Threats14.5 Consequences for Humans Sharing Buildings with Bats14.5.1 Benefits of Sharing a Building with Bats14.5.2 Pathogen and Parasite Exposure14.5.3 Noise, Odor, Dust, and Activity14.5.4 Harmful Bats14.5.5 Destruction of Buildings Caused by Bat Excreta14.6 Conservation of Bats in Buildings: Avoidance, Mitigation, and Compensation14.6.1 General Considerations for the Conservation of Bats in Buildings14.6.2 Avoiding or Mitigating Roost Losses in Buildings14.6.3 Compensating for Lost Roosts14.6.4 Loss of Roosts Due to Demographic Changes in the Human Population14.7 Examples of Good Practice14.7.1 Example 1: The Outreach Program for the “Bat-Friendly House”14.7.2 Example 2: Renovated Buildings Designated for Bat Conservation Purposes14.8 Synthesis and OutlookReferencesChapter 15 Conservation Ecology of Cave Bats15.1 Introduction15.2 Why Do Cave Bats Matter?15.3 Life in Caves15.3.1 Cave Selection15.3.2 Influence of Cave Microclimate15.3.3 Importance of Bats for Cave Ecosytems15.4 Conservation Threats15.4.1 Seasonality and Climate Change15.4.2 Incidental Disturbance15.4.3 Extractive Industries15.4.4 Cave Tourism15.4.5 Insights from Long Term Studies15.4.6 Declines in Cave Bats15.5 Conservation Responses15.5.1 National and International Initiatives for the Protection of Cave Bats15.5.2 Development of Gating15.5.3 Artificial Hibernacula and Maternity Roosts15.5.4 Recent Initiatives15.6 Future DirectionsReferencesPart IV Conservation Approaches, Educational and Outreach ProgramsChapter 16 The Roles of Taxonomy and Systematics in Bat Conservation16.1 Introduction16.2 The Continuing Age of Discovery16.3 The Role of the Taxonomist in Conservation16.4 Taxonomy and International Agreements16.5 Taxonomy as a Conservation Planning Tool16.5.1 A Basic Question: What is a Species?16.5.2 Listing Species for Protection16.5.3 Downsides of Species Listing16.5.4 Inventory and Monitoring Programs16.5.5 Defining Protected Areas16.5.6 Estimating Extinction Risk and Extinction Rate: The Role of Phylogenetics16.6 Impediments to Taxonomic Research16.7 Conservation in the Era of Molecular Phylogenetics16.8 The Problem of “Taxonomic Inflation”16.9 ConclusionReferencesChapter 17 Networking Networks for Global Bat Conservation17.1 Introduction17.2 Existing Bat Conservation Networks17.2.1 Commonalities of Existing Networks17.2.1.1 Origins and Activities17.2.1.2 Structure and Membership17.2.1.3 Challenges to Network Sustainability17.3 What We Can Learn from Theories of Network Structure and Function17.3.1 Network Structure and Function17.3.2 Structural Characteristics of Effective Conservation Networks: Within Subgroup Cohesion, Across Subgroup Collaboration, Bridging Actors, and Peripheral Actors17.4 Toward a Global Network of Networks17.4.1 Do We Need a Global Network?17.4.2 Strengthening Existing Networks17.4.3 Filling Regional Gaps—Establishing New Networks17.4.4 Networking Networks for Global Coverage17.5 RecommendationsReferencesChapter 18 Cute, Creepy, or Crispy—How Values, Attitudes, and Norms Shape Human Behavior Toward Bats18.1 Introduction18.2 Theories of Behavior and Behavioral Change18.3 Values18.3.1 Theory18.3.2 Empirical Values18.4 Attitudes18.4.1 Theory18.4.2 Empirical Attitudes Toward Animals and Factors Affecting Them18.4.2.1 Prior Attitudes and Values of Wildlife and Nature18.4.2.2 Previous Experience and Knowledge18.4.2.3 Relationship Between Species and Humans—Cultural Significance and Utility Value18.4.2.4 Human Perceptions of Individual Species18.5 Social Norms18.6 Assessing Attitudes, Values, and Norms18.7 RecommendationsReferences
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