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3 Data: How to Approach Innovation Process

In order to approach innovation process in urban systems, we elaborate databases that combine demographic data and data related to urban industries and especially Knowledge-Creating Services categories. We lead analysis on 354 French cities which are defined as functional urban areas (aires urbaines). The data deals with population and employment from the seven censuses that occurred since the 1960s.

[1] Each city is described by the share of employment in 32 economic sectors

Fig. 1 Intersections between the three different classifications of knowledge-based economic activities (Compagnucci & Cusinato, 2011)

that have been harmonized following the NES—French national industry classification that was used until 2008. It is a challenge to harmonize the four economic activities nomenclatures that were used since 1962. But it is possible if we consider sectors not in their specific meaning but according to their stage in innovation cycles.

Finally, we use another source: the CLAP database (Located Data on Productive System) in order to circumscribe in the best way KCS. This is possible however only for one date, 2008. The CLAP database provides data about location of firms with their employment and detailed economic activities.

This approach to Knowledge-Creating Services (Fig. 1) differs from others classification like the Knowledge Intensive Business Services—KIBS (Miles et al., 1995) and the Creative Industries (DCMS, 2001) approaches. It differs from the former because it does not take into consideration those services that, although they have a high technological content, mainly make applicative use of existing knowledge, such as “Data processing”, “Database activities”, “Maintenance and repair of offices, accounting and computing machinery”. By contrast, KCS include “Media” as well as other public activities, such as “Universities and Research Centres”, that are not recorded by the others. On the other hand, KCS differ from Creative Industry classification because they do not encompass the entire creative chain (from the inventive conception and design to the manufacturing production and retail) but only the knowledge-intensive service components of this chain.

  • [1] The analysis takes into account seven French Censuses (1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999 and

    sometimes 2006)

 
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