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Polyurethanes science, technology, markets, and trends - Mark F.Sonnenschein


Year 2015

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1. Introduction2. Polyurethane Building Blocks2.1. POLYOLS2.1.1. Polyether Polyols2.1.1.1 Building Blocks 2.1.1.2 Polymerization of Alkoxides to Polyethers 2.1.2. Polyester Polyols2.1.2.1 Polyester Polyol Building Blocks 2.1.2.2 Preparation of Polyester Polyols 2.1.2.3 Aliphatic Polyester Polyols 2.1.2.4 Aromatic Polyester Polyols 2.1.3. Other Polyols2.1.3.1 Polycarbonate Polyols 2.1.3.2 Polyacrylate Polyols2.1.4. Filled Polyols2.1.4.1 Copolymer Polyols 2.1.4.2 PHD Polyols2.1.4.3 PIPA Polyols 2.1.5. Seed Oil-Derived Polyols2.1.5.1 Preparation of Seed Oil-Derived Polyols 2.1.6. Prepolymers2.2. ISOCYANATES2.2.1. TDI2.2.1.1 Conventional Production of TDI 2.2.1.2 Nonphosgene Routes to TDI 2.2.2. Diphenylmethane Diisocyanates (MDI)2.2.2.1 Production of MDI 2.2.3. Aliphatic Isocyanates2.2.3.1 Production of Aliphatic Isocyanates2.2.3.2 Use of Aliphatic Isocyanates 2.3. CHAIN EXTENDERS3. Introduction to Polyurethane chemistry3.1 Introduction3.2 Mechanism and catalysis of urethane formation3.3 Reactions of isocyanates with active hydrogen compounds3.3.1 Urea Formation3.3.2 Allophanate Formation3.3.3 Formation of Biurets3.3.4 Formation of IJretidione (isocyanate dimer)3.3.5 Formation of carbodiimide3.3.6 Formation of uretonimine3.3.7 Formation of Amides4. Theoretical concepts and techniques in polyurethane science4.1 FORMATION OF POLYURETHANE STRUCTURE4.2 PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANES4.2.1 Models and Calculations for Polymer Modulus4.2.2 Models for elastomer stress strain properties4.2.2.1 Factors that Affect Polyurethane Stress-Strain Behavior 4.2.2.2 Calculating Foam Properties 4.2.3 The Polyurethane Glass Transition Temperature5. Analytical characterization of polyurethanes5.1 ANALYSIS OF REAGENTS FOR MAKING POLYURETHANES5.1.1 Analysis of Polyols5.1.1.1 Hydroxyl Number 5.1.1.2 CPR 5.1.2 Analysis of Isocyanates5.1.2.1 Analysis of pMDI 5.2 INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS OF POLYURETHANES5.2.1 Microscopy5.2.1.1 Optical Microscopy 5.2.1.2 SEM5.2.1.3 TEM5.2.1.4 AFM5.2.2 IR Spectrometry5.2.3 X-ray Analyses5.2.3.1 Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering 5.2.3.2 SAXS 5.3 MECHANICAL ANALYSIS5.3.1 Tensile, Tear, and Elongation Testing5.3.2 DMA5.4 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC SPECTROSCOPY6. Polyurethane flexible foams chemistry and fabrication6.1 MAKING POLYURETHANE FOAMS6.1.1 Slabstock Foams6.1.2 Molded Foams6.2 FOAM PROCESSES6.2.1 Surfactancy and Catalysis 6.2.1.1 Catalysis6.2.1.2 Surfactancy6.3 FLEXIBLE FOAM FORMULATION AND STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS6.3.1 Screening Tests6.3.2 Foam Formulation and Structure-Property Relationships7. Polyurethane flexible foams: manufacture, applications, markets, and trends7.1 APPLICATIONS7.1.1 Furniture7.1.2 Mattresses and Bedding7.1.3 Transportation7.1.4 The Molded Foam Market7.2 TRENDS IN MOLDED FOAM TECHNOLOGY AND MARKETS8. Polyurethane rigid foams: manufacture, applications, markets, and trends8.1 REGIONAL MARKET DYNAMICS8.2 APPLICATIONS8.2.1 Construction Foams8.2.1.1 Polyisocyanurate Foams 8.2.1.2 Spray, Poured, and Froth Foams 8.2.2 Rigid Construction Foam Market Segments8.2.3 Appliance Foams8.3 BLOWING AGENTS AND INSULATION FUNDAMENTALS 8.3.1 Blowing Agents8.3.2 Blowing Agent Phase-Out Schedule8.4 INSULATION FUNDAMENTALS8.5 TRENDS IN RIGID FOAMS TECHNOLOGY9. Polyurethane elastomers : manufacture, applications, markets, and trends9.1 REGIONAL MARKET DYNAMICS9.2 APPLICATIONS9.2.1 Footwear9.2.1.1 Trends in Footwear Applications 9.2.2 Nonfootwear Elastomer Applications and Methods of Manufacture9.2.2.1 Cast Elastomers 9.2.2.2 Thermoplastic Polyurethanes 9.2.2.3 Reaction Injection Molding Elastomers 9.2.2.4 PU Elastomer Fibers 9.3 TRENDS IN PU ELASTOMERS10. Polyurethane adhesives and coatings: manufacture, applications, markets, and trends10.1 ADHESIVE AND COATING INDUSTRIES: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES10.2 ADHESIVES10.2.1 Adhesive Formulations10.2.1.1 One-Part Adhesives 10.2.1.2 Hotmelt Adhesives10.2.1.3 Waterborne PU Adhesives 10.2.2 Trends in PU Adhesives10.3 COATINGS10.3.1 PU Coating Formulations10.3.1.1 Two-part Solvent-Borne Coating 10.3.1.2 Waterborne Coatings 10.3.1.3 Waterborne Hybrids 10.3.1.4 UV Cured Waterborne Dispersions for Coatings 10.3.1.5 PU Powder Coatings 10.3.2 Trends in PU Coatings11. Special topics: medical uses of polyurethane11.1 MARKETS AND PARTICIPANTS11.2 TECHNOLOGY 11.2.1 Catheters11.2.2 Wound Dressings11.2.3 Bioabsorbable Polyurethanes11.2.4 Hydrogels11.2.5 Gloves and Condoms12. Special topic: nonisocyanate routes to polyurethanes12.1. GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION OF ISOCYANATES12.2 NONIS OCYANATE ROUTES TO POLYURETHANES12.2.1 Reactions of Polycyclic Carbonates with Polyamines12.2.2 Direct Transformations of Amines to Urethanes12.2.3 Reactions of Polycarbamates12.2.4 Conversion of Hydroxamic Acids to Polyurethane12.2.5 Conversion of Hydroxylamines to Polyurethanes
 
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