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The Evolution of Morality - Todd K. Shackelford

Year 2016


PrefacePart I Psychological Design and DevelopmentThe Tripartite Theory of Machiavellian Morality: Judgment, Influence, and Conscience as Distinct Moral AdaptationsIntroductionThe Moral MechanismsMoral Judgment: Evolution and Design FeaturesMoral Influence: Evolution and Design FeaturesMoral Conscience: Evolution and Design FeaturesSexual InfidelityProperty TheftAmbiguity in Morality ResearchDiscussion and Future DirectionsAvoiding the Naturalistic Fallacy in Morality ResearchConclusionReferencesMorality as Cooperation: A Problem-Centred ApproachIntroductionA Natural History of Morality(1) Kinship(2) Mutualism(3) Exchange(4) Conflict ResolutionA Periodic Table of EthicsAlternative AlchemiesConclusionReferencesAn Evolving and Developing Field of Study: Prosocial Morality from a Biological, Cultural, and Developmental PerspectiveTheoretical and Definitional Issues in MoralityBehavioral ExpressionsCognitive-Based Moral ProcessesMoral ReasoningValuesEmotion-Based Moral ProcessesEmpathy and SympathyGuilt and ShameIndividual Differences in Justice-Based and CompassionBased ConsiderationsBiological Basis of Proximal MechanismsGenes and NeurotransmittersTemperamentPubertyBiology × Environment ApproachesTemperament × Parenting StudiesCulture × Biology StudiesSummary and Future DirectionsReferencesPart II Philosophy and EthicsEvolutionary Awareness: A Metacognitive Framework for EthicsEvolutionary Awareness: A Metacognitive Framework for EthicsThe Ethical Dimension of an Evolutionary AwarenessThe Evolution of Human MoralityApplications of Evolutionary AwarenessEvolutionary Awareness and Sexual MaturationEvolutionary Awareness and Mate ChoiceEvolutionary Awareness and Intrasexual CompetitionEvolutionary Awareness and CultureIntergenerational Extended PhenotypesToward a Consilient, Metacognitive Evolutionary ParadigmUnresolved IssuesReferencesThe Containment Problem and the Evolutionary Debunking of MoralityIntroductionEvolutionary MetaethicsMeta-Normative Properties and the Moral DomainMetaethical Variability and IndeterminacyVarieties of Debunking ArgumentsInfluenceSufficient Nonmoral ExplanationsThe Containment Problem: Debunking Debunked?The Containment ProblemThe Metaethical Containment ProblemAlternative Debunking Strategies(1) Revised Domains(2) Content Domain Debunking(3) Meta-Normative Debunking(4) Functional Debunking(5) Concede and RedeemSome Implications for Evolutionary PsychologyTalking About the Evolution of MoralityAreas for Future ResearchConclusionReferencesLife Is Not GoodAntinatalism in Biological and Cultural Evolution: Fertility and SuicideIntroductionThe Evolution of Fertility NormsA Note on the Non-role of Child Mortality in the Fertility TransitionWhy People Used to Have ChildrenIs Suicide Adaptive?ConclusionReferencesPart III Animal Behavior and Comparative PsychologyA Comparative Perspective on the Evolution of Moral BehaviorIntroductionWhy Study Other Species?Conflict ResolutionReciprocityResponses to InequityEmpathyConclusion: The Importance of Comparative Research for Understanding Human MoralityReferencesHelping Another in Distress: Lessons from RatsMammalian Babies Need Help to SurviveThe Extended SelfSocial CohesionHow Is Affective Communication Accomplished?Actions Influence Emotions, Embodied EmotionPersonal Distress Antagonizes HelpingHow Can We Study Empathy in Nonhuman Animals?Definition of HelpingPrimates HelpEarly Work on Helping in RodentsGiving Rats a Chance to HelpWhy Do Rats Open the Restrainer Door?Are Rats Socially Motivated to Liberate a Trapped Rat?Who Will Rats Help?What Prevents Helping?Multidimensional Space of HelpingHelping Is MammalianReferencesPart IV Religious Beliefs and BehaviorA Moral Guide to Depravity: Religiously Motivated Violence and Sexual SelectionEvolutionary Psychological Perspectives on ViolenceSexual SelectionParental InvestmentSexual Selection and Parental Investment Explain ViolenceSexual Selection, Parental Investment, and Religiously Motivated ViolenceWife Beating, Killing, and RapingGenital MutilationHonor KillingChild Abuse and FilicideFuture DirectionsConclusionReferencesDisentangling Religion and Morality: An Analysis of Religiosity in the United StatesIntroductionEvolutionary Psychology and Its Application to ReligionSecure Society TheoryEvidence Supporting Secure Society TheoryAdditional Supporting Evidence of Secure Society TheoryThe Present StudyMethodData Sets and Variable SelectionResultsReligiosity and Individual Perceptions of Societal InsecurityDoes Societal Insecurity, at the Individual and Regional Level, Predict Religiosity?Does Societal Insecurity Predict Future Religiosity?DiscussionLimitations of the Present StudyFuture DirectionsConclusionReferencesPart V Politics, Law, and Game TheoryThe Evolved Functions of Procedural Fairness: An Adaptation for PoliticsProcedural Fairness: Existing Findings and TheoryWhere to Look for “Why”? Evidence for the Relevance of Biological EvolutionAdaptive Problems in Politics: The Benefits and Costs of HierarchiesPolitics as a Set of Adaptive ProblemsThe Costs and Benefits of FollowershipThe Adaptive Functions of Procedural FairnessProcedural Fairness as a Diagnostic ToolProcedural Fairness as a Bargaining ToolEvolutionary Mismatches: The Evolved Functions of Procedural Fairness and Modern PoliticsConclusionReferencesProperty Law Reflections of a Sense of Right and WrongA Traditional View of PropertyRespect for Possession in the LawRespect for Possession in Nature: The Bourgeois StrategyTwo Elements of Possession: Physical Control and IntentElements of Possession in the LawTitle by Prescription and Changes in Value with Duration of PossessionThe Law as Extended Human PhenotypeThe Sense of Justice in Conflict with the Law of Eminent DomainConclusionsCasesReferencesGame Theory and MoralityIntroductionWhat Is Game Theory and Why Is It Relevant?Rights and the Hawk–Dove GameAuthentic Altruism, Motives, and the Envelope GameThe Omission–Commission Distinction and Higher-Order BeliefsWhy Morality Depends on Categorical DistinctionsQuirks of Altruism and the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with Incomplete InformationConclusionReferences
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