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Enabling Asia to Stabilise the Climate - Shuzo Nishioka


Year 2016

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Introduction: Enabling Asia to Stabilise the ClimateA Stable Climate Is a Common Asset for HumankindThe Responsibilities and Role of Asia Are VitalAn Opportunity to Leapfrog by Integrating Knowledge and Wisdom In-CountryGood Practices of Science-Based Climate Policy Development Making Progress in AsiaInternational Cooperation for Knowledge-Sharing Towards Realising a Low-Carbon AsiaUtilise Asia's Full Force and Make the Leap to Stablise the ClimatePart I Asia Is a Key for a Sustainable Low-Carbon SocietyChapter 1 GHG Reduction Potential in AsiaKey Messages to Policy Makers1.1 Introduction1.2 Ten Actions to Achieve the Low-Carbon Society in Asia1.2.1 Hierarchically Connected Compact Cities1.2.2 Mainstreaming Rail and Water in Interregional Transport1.2.3 Smart Ways to Use Materials That Realize the Full Potential of Resources1.2.4 Energy-Saving Spaces Utilizing Sunlight and Wind1.2.5 Local Production and Local Consumption of Biomass1.2.6 Low-Carbon Energy System Using Local Resources1.2.7 Low-Emission Agricultural Technologies1.2.8 Sustainable Forestry Management1.2.9 Technology and Finance for a Low-Carbon Society1.2.10 Transparent and Fair Governance That Supports Low-Carbon Asia1.3 GHG Reduction by Introducing “Ten Actions”1.3.1 Feasibility of Reducing GHG Emissions by 68 %1.4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 2 Transition to a Low-Carbon Future in China Towards 2 oC Global TargetKey Message to Policymakers2.1 Background2.2 Emission Scenarios2.2.1 Methodology Framework2.2.2 Global Emission Scenarios and Regional Allocation2.2.3 China's Emission Scenarios2.3 Key Factors in the Low-Emission Pathway2.3.1 Policy Options2.4 Factors Causing Uncertainty in the Modelling Analysis2.5 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 3 India's GHG Emission Reduction and Sustainable DevelopmentKey Message to Policymakers3.1 Introduction3.2 Model and Scenarios3.2.1 Assessment Methodology and Model System3.2.2 Scenarios Description3.3 Scenarios Analysis and Comparative Assessment3.3.1 Energy Demand3.3.2 CO2 Emissions and Mitigation Options3.4 Co-benefits of Mitigation3.4.1 Energy Security3.4.2 Environment3.4.3 Net Social Cost of Carbon3.5 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 4 Eighty Percent Reduction Scenario in JapanKey Message to Policy Makers4.1 Introduction4.2 From the Kyoto Protocol to Middle-Term Target4.3 2 oC Target and Mitigation in Japan in 20504.4 How to Achieve 80 % Reduction Target in Japan4.5 ConclusionReferencesChapter 5 Potential of Low-Carbon Development in Vietnam, from Practices to Legal FrameworkKey Message to Policy Makers5.1 Introduction5.2 GHG Emissions in Vietnam5.2.1 The Total Amount and Level of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Vietnam5.2.2 Structure and Trends in Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Vietnam5.2.3 Trends in Emissions from Different Sectors5.2.4 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Different Sectors5.3 Identification of External Impacts of GHG Emission Reduction Policies5.3.1 Externalities of Greenhouse Gas Emission Policies5.3.2 The Impact of Macroeconomics5.3.3 The Problems of Hunger Eradication and Poverty Reduction5.3.4 The Impact on Employment5.3.5 The Impact on Energy Security5.3.6 The Impact on the Environment5.3.7 Reducing Costs and Losses from Climate Change Impacts5.3.8 The Social Impact5.4 Selection of Priority Areas and Measures to Reduce Emissions of Greenhouse Gases5.4.1 Selection of Priority Areas5.4.2 Identifying Technical Solutions—Technology Priorities in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions5.4.3 Lessons for VietnamReferencesPart II Bridging the Gap Between Modeling and Real Policy DevelopmentChapter 6 Designing a National Policy Framework for NAMAs Key Message to Policymakers6.1 Introduction6.2 NAMA and CO2 Mitigation Strategy6.3 Implementation of a Climate Change Mechanism in Thailand6.3.1 Success of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects in Thailand6.4 Overview of Energy, Environment and Socio-Economic Factors6.4.1 Thailand's Energy Sector6.4.2 Primary Energy Supply and Final Energy Consumption6.4.3 Thailand's GHG Emissions6.4.4 Other Air Pollutant Emissions6.5 Relationship Between Thailand's Energy Policy and Climate Change6.5.1 Revised Alternative Energy Development Plan: AEDP 2012–20216.5.2 Thailand's 20-Year Energy Efficiency Development Plan6.5.3 Thailand Power Development Plan (PDP) 2010–20306.5.4 Environmental Sustainable Transport System6.6 AIM/Enduse Modelling of Thailand's Energy System6.7 Designing a National Policy Framework for Thailand's NAMAs6.7.1 Criteria/Selection of CO2 Countermeasures6.7.2 Domestically vs. Internationally Supported NAMAs6.7.3 Economic Assessment of Domestic and Internationally Supported NAMAs6.8 Framework for Thailand's NAMAs6.8.1 NAMA Pledge to UNFCCC6.8.2 Seeking Financial Support6.9 Building Consensus Among NAMA Stakeholders in Thailand6.10 Co-Benefits of Thailand's NAMAs6.10.1 Energy Security Aspect6.10.2 Environmental Aspect6.10.3 Economic Aspect6.10.4 Social Aspect6.11 Layout of Roadmap to Thailand NAMA 20206.12 MRV of Thailand's NAMAs: The Road to SuccessReferencesChapter 7 'Science to Action' of the Sustainable Low Carbon City-regionKey Messages to Policymakers7.1 Introduction7.1.1 About Low Carbon Society Blueprint for Iskandar Malaysia 20257.1.2 Low Carbon Society (LCS)7.1.3 Iskandar Malaysia (IM) in Brief7.2 Integrating Low Carbon Society Blueprint into Existing Policy Framework7.3 Policy Design for Low Carbon Society Blueprint in Iskandar Malaysia7.3.1 Science-to-Policy Approach to Designing the LCSBP-IM20057.3.2 Creating LCS Scenarios – The Extended Snapshot (ExSS) Tool7.3.3 Structure of Extended Snapshot (ExSS) Tool7.4 GHG Emissions in Iskandar Malaysia7.4.1 Structure of GHG Emission Mitigation Options7.4.2 GHG Emission Mitigation Options7.5 Beyond Science and Policymaking: Implementing the LCSBP-IM20257.6 Lessons LearntReferencesPart III Best Practices and Recommendations in Each Sector to Make It HappenChapter 8 Low-Carbon Transport in IndiaKey Message to Policy Makers8.1 Introduction8.1.1 Current Transport Scenario in India8.1.2 Transport Scenarios for India8.1.3 Need for Assessment8.2 Transport Policies in India8.3 Transport Policy at the National and Subnational Levels8.3.1 Selection and Assessment Criteria8.3.2 Case 1: Delhi Metro8.3.3 Case 2: Auto Fuel Policy (AFP)8.3.4 Bus Rapid Transit System8.3.5 Low-Carbon Comprehensive Mobility Plan Toolkit8.3.6 Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC)8.3.7 National Electric Mobility Mission Plan8.4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 9 Potential of Reducing GHG Emission from REDD+ Activities in IndonesiaKey Message to Policy Makers9.1 Introduction9.2 Indonesian Forest9.3 Deforestation and Trend of CO2 Emission9.4Low-Carbon Policies on Forest and Land Use Sector9.4.1 Forest Management Units (FMUs)9.4.2 Forest Certification System9.4.3 Reduction of Dependency on Natural Forests for Wood Supply and Sink Enhancement9.4.4 Reduction of Pressure on Natural Forest by Optimizing Land Use and Improving Land Productivity9.5 Financing and Incentive Policies for Supporting the Implementation of SFM and REDD+9.5.1 Financial Policy for Development of FMUs9.5.2 Incentive System for Certification9.5.3 Incentive and Financial Policy for Accelerating9.5.4 Incentive and Financial Policies for Conserving Forest Carbon and Land SwapReferencesChapter 10 Fostering Capacity Development for Asia's LeapfrogKey Message to Policy Makers10.1 Capacity Development Is Important in Asia—A Tool for Leapfrog10.1.1 The Power of Asia10.1.2 The Rise of ASEAN10.1.3 Regional Development10.1.4 Decoupling of GHG and GDP10.1.5 How Can Asia Leapfrog to a Low-Carbon Society?10.2 Structure and Mechanisms of Capacity Development10.2.1 Knowledge-Sharing Platform10.2.2 From Research to Policy and Implementation10.2.3 Level of Low-Carbon Society Implementation10.3 Mechanism of Knowledge Dissemination10.4 Conclusion and Key Messages10.4.1 Capacity Development Is the Basis for Asia's Leapfrog10.4.2 A Bullet Train Model10.4.3 Asian Countries Need CollaborationReferencesChapter 11 Capacity Development on GHG Inventories in AsiaKey Message to Policymakers11.1 Introduction to WGIA11.1.1 GHG Inventory in International Negotiations11.1.2 Responsibility of Developing Countries11.1.3 The Role of Greenhouse Gas Inventory Office of Japan (GIO)11.1.4 One Part of the National System11.1.5 The Objective of WGIA11.1.6 History of WGIA11.1.7 Contents of WGIA11.1.8 Latest Workshop on GHG Inventories in Asia (WGIA12), 201411.2 Achievements of WGIA11.2.1 Enhanced Relationships11.2.2 Sharing Information Such as Sector-Specific Issues and General Issues of GHG Inventory11.2.3 Related Activities and International Cooperation11.2.4 Networks11.2.5 Achievements11.3 Other activities of WGIA11.3.1 Website and Mailing List11.3.2 WGIA-EFDB (Emission Factors Database)11.4 Conclusions11.4.1 Importance of Ongoing, Face-to-Face Discussions11.4.2 Sharing of Information and Experience11.4.3 Network Utilisation11.4.4 Continuity of WGIAReferencesChapter 12 Japan's Comprehensive and Continual Support Package for the CreationKey Message to Policy Makers12.1 Japan's Strategies to Support Scientific Climate Policymaking in Asia12.1.1 Scope of Scientific Climate Policy12.1.2 Japan's Support for Climate Policies in Asia12.2 The Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet)12.2.1 Science-Based Policy Formulation: LoCARNet Research and Policy Integration Activities12.2.2 Future PlanReferences
 
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