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Society –  Water – Technology - Reinhard F. Hüttl

Year 2016


Part I Context and ObjectivesChapter 1 Introduction: A Critical Appraisal of Major Water Engineering Projects and the Need for Interdisciplinary Approaches1.1 Ecological Challenges, Social and Economic Opportunities: The Multiple Facets of Major Water Engineering Projects1.2 Interdisciplinary Research on Water Resources1.3 The Interdisciplinary Research Tradition of the BerlinBrandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities1.4 Aims and Working Structure of the Interdisciplinary Research Group Society – Water – Technology1.5 Acknowledgements1.6 Members of the Interdisciplinary Research Group Society – Water – TechnologyChapter 2 Water Ethics – Orientation for Water Conflicts as Part of Interand Transdisciplinary Deliberation2.1 Objectives and Approach2.2 The Value of Water in Different Cultures2.2.1 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam2.2.2 Western Modernity2.2.3 The Need for Water Ethics Beyond Value Assignment2.3 Water Ethics2.3.1 Review of the Literature on Water Ethics2.3.2 Subjects of Water Ethics2.3.3 Substantial and Procedural Aspects of Water Ethics2.4 Cultural and Social Preconditions of the Ethical Discourse2.5 Water Conflicts2.6 Water Ethics and Specific Water ConflictsReferencesPart II Major Water Engineering Projects – Challenges, Problems, OpportunitiesChapter 3 Major Water Engineering Projects: Definitions, Framework Conditions, Systemic Effects3.1 Definition of Major Water Engineering Projects – A Proposal3.2 Water Technologies – Uses and Functions3.2.1 Water Storage3.2.2 Water Distribution3.2.3 Water Use3.3 Principles, Trends and Framework Conditions of Major Water Engineering Projects3.4 An Evaluation Framework of MWEPsReferencesChapter 4 A Global View on Future Major Water Engineering Projects4.1 Introduction4.2 Major Engineering Projects in the Water Sector4.2.1 Interbasin Water-Transfer Projects4.2.2 Navigable Waterways4.2.3 Hydropower Mega Dams4.2.4 Large-Scale Restoration Projects4.3 DiscussionReferencesChapter 5 Neglected Values of Major Water Engineering Projects: Ecosystem Services, Social Impacts, and Economic Valuation5.1 Controversial Discussions About Benefits and Costs of Major Water Engineering Projects5.2 The Emergence of Major Water Engineering Projects Worldwide: Large Dams on the Advance5.3 Making Ecosystem Services and Distributional Concerns Visible and Incorporating Them into Decision Making5.3.1 The Concept of Total Economic Value5.3.2 Ecological Trade-Offs5.3.3 Social Conflicts5.3.4 Potential and Limits of Economic Analysis5.4 Concluding RemarksReferencesChapter 6 Water Governance: A Systemic Approach6.1 Introduction6.2 System Theory Revisited6.3 The Governance Approach6.4 Dealing with ComplexityReferencesChapter 7 Research in Two Case Studies: Irrigation and Land Use in the Fergana Valley and Water Management in the Lower Jordan Valley7.1 Selection of the Case Studies: A Wide Spectrum of Socio-Economic and Ecological Framework Conditions7.2 The Fergana Valley7.3 The Lower Jordan River Basin and the Red Sea–Dead Sea Conveyance Project7.4 Significance and Exemplary Importance of the Case StudiesReferencesPart III The Fergana Valley – Uzbekistan's Hydro-Agricultural System Between Inertia and ChangeChapter 8 Between Multiple Transformations and Systemic Path Dependencies8.1 Post-Soviet Transformation as a Multi-dimensional, Long-Term Process8.2 Transformation and Path Dependencies in Fergana Valley's Post-Soviet Agriculture8.3 Transformation and Path Dependencies in Fergana Valley's Post-Soviet Irrigation System8.4 Researching the Fergana Valley: Tasks and TopicsReferencesChapter 9 From Upscaling to Rescaling: Transforming the Fergana Basin from Tsarist Irrigation to Water Management for an Independent Uzbekistan9.1 Introduction9.2 Salient Features of Fergana's Irrigation System9.3 Historical Setting of Tsarist Plans to Utilise Central Asian Water Resources to Large-Scale Soviet Irrigation in the Fergana Valley9.4 Geographical Rescaling After Independence9.5 Persistence and Change Within Uzbekistan's Water ManagementReferencesChapter 10 Irrigation Infrastructure in Fergana Today: Ecological Implications – Economic Necessities10.1 Introduction10.2 General Overview of Fergana Valley10.2.1 Geography (Geomorphological Structure)10.2.2 Climate10.2.3 Demography10.2.4 Land Use and Agricultural Production10.3 Water Resources Management in the Fergana Valley10.3.1 Hydrological Characteristics10.3.2 Irrigation Network10.3.3 Collector-Drainage Network10.3.4 Management Structures10.3.5 Agricultural Water Use10.4 Ecological Impact of Water Management and Irrigation Practices10.5 Economical Necessities to Maintain Irrigation Infrastructures10.5.1 Water Productivity10.6 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 11 Where Water Meets Agriculture: The Ambivalent Role of Water Users Associations11.1 WUAs in the Global Discourse on Integrated Water Resources Management11.2 WUAs as Building Blocks of Irrigation Management in the Fergana Valley11.2.1 Early Origins of WUAs11.2.2 Organisational Structure of WUAs11.2.3 Spatial Reform of WUAs11.2.4 Current Status of WUAs11.3 Fergana Valley's WUAs in Practice11.3.1 Practices of Representation11.3.2 Practices of Leadership11.3.3 Practices of Regulation11.3.4 Practices of Education11.4 WUAs as Models for Emulation?ReferencesChapter 12 Theory, the Market and the State: Agricultural Reforms in Post Socialist Uzbekistan Between Economic Incentives and Institutional Obstacles12.1 Introduction: The Need to Price Water Resources in the Fergana Valley12.2 Some Economics of Water Pricing12.2.1 What Are the Full Costs of Water and Its Services?12.2.2 Who Should Bear the Full Costs of Water Services?12.3 Political and Institutional Obstacles12.3.1 Protection of the Agricultural Sector12.3.2 No Freedom for Individual Choice12.3.3 Lack of Clearly Defined Water Rights and Unclear Role of Water Users Associations12.4 Concluding RemarksReferencesPart IV The Lower Jordan Valley – The Red Sea-Dead Sea onveyance Project and Its Complex HistoryChapter 13 Water Resources, Cooperation and Power Asymmetries in the Water Management of the Lower Jordan Valley: The Situation Today and the Path that Has Led There13.1 Water Resources of the Lower Jordan Basin13.1.1 Water Uses and Water Abstractions13.1.2 Water Balance13.1.3 Environmental Consequences of Current Water Uses13.1.4 Climate and Demography13.1.5 Proposed Strategies13.2 History of Water Conflicts, Cooperation and Treaties13.2.1 The Johnston Plan13.2.2 The Agreement Concerning the Utilisation of the Yarmuk Waters13.2.3 The Peace Treaty Between Israel and Jordan13.2.4 The Oslo II Agreement13.2.5 The Red Sea–Dead Sea Water Conveyance Study Programme13.2.6 The Water Swap Memorandum of Understanding13.3 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 14 Reclaiming the Dead Sea: Alternatives for Action14.1 Introduction14.2 Water Scarcity in the Jordan River Basin14.3 Water Conveyance from the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea14.3.1 Red Sea–Dead Sea Water Conveyance14.3.2 Mediterranean Sea–Dead Sea Water Conveyance14.3.3 Southern Route (Ashkelon → Qumran)14.3.4 Northern Route (Atlit → Naharayim-Bakura → Dead Sea)14.4 Dead Sea Reclamation Based on Recycled Water14.5 How to Cover the Cost of Dead Sea Reclamation?14.6 Concluding CommentsReferencesChapter 15 Jordan's Shadow State and Water Management: Prospects for Water Security Will Depend on Politics and Regional Cooperation15.1 Defining the Problem15.1.1 Demand Exceeds Supply15.1.2 Unpredictable Transboundary Flows15.1.3 Governance Shortcomings15.2 The Shadow State15.2.1 The Politics of Co-option15.2.2 Politics of Water15.3 Proposed Actions15.3.1 Building Water Security Through Political Reforms15.3.2 National and Regional Solutions15.4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 16 Technologies, Incentives and Cost Recovery: Is There an Israeli Role Model?16.1 Introduction16.2 The Evolution of Israel's Water and Agrarian Policy16.3 Reform of the Water Management Institutions16.4 Desalination16.5 Extension of Wastewater Treatment Plants16.6 Economic Instruments and Incentives16.7 Awareness-Raising Measures16.8 Discussion of Water Management Impacts16.9 Can Israel Serve as a Role Model? 10 Lessons to Be LearntReferencesPart V Outlook and Options for ActionChapter 17 Lessons Learnt, Open Research Questions and Recommendations17.1 Introduction17.2 The Fergana Valley17.3 The Lower Jordan Basin17.4 Cross-Analysis of the Case Studies17.4.1 Strengthening International Coordination and Cooperation Around WEPs17.4.2 Enhancing Planning Processes and Evaluation Tools for MWEPs17.4.3 Improving Responsiveness and Responsibility17.4.4 MWEPs as Coupled Technical-Social-Environmental Systems17.4.5 Concluding RemarksReferences
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