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3.3. Good governance and corporate behaviour

Good governance is of course important in every sphere of society whether it be the corporate environment or general society or the political environment. Good governance can, for example, improve public faith and confidence in the political environment. When the resources are too limited to meet the minimum expectations of the people, it is a good governance level that can help to promote the welfare of society. And of course a concern with governance is at least as prevalent in the corporate world.

Good governance is essential for good corporate performance and one view of good corporate performance is that of stewardship and thus just as the management of an organisation is concerned with the stewardship of the financial resources of the organisation so too would management of the organisation be concerned with the stewardship of environmental resources. The difference however is that environmental resources are mostly located externally to the organisation. Stewardship in this context therefore is concerned with the resources of society as well as the resources of the organisation. As far as stewardship of external environmental resources is concerned then the central tenet of such stewardship is that of ensuring sustainability.

Sustainability is focused on the future and is concerned with ensuring that the choices of resource utilisation in the future are not constrained by decisions taken in the present. This necessarily implies such concepts as generating and utilising renewable resources, minimizing pollution and using new techniques of manufacture and distribution. It also implies the acceptance of any costs involved in the present as an investment for the future.

A great deal of concern has been expressed all over the world about shortcomings in the systems of corporate governance in operation, and its organisation has been exercising the minds of business managers, academics and government officials all over the world. Often companies' main target is to become global - while at the same time remaining sustainable -as a means to get competitive power. But the most important question is concerned with what will be a firms' route to becoming global and what will be necessary in order to get global competitive power. There is more than one answer to this question and there are a variety of routes for a company to achieve this. Corporate governance can be considered as an environment of trust, ethics, moral values and confidence - as a synergic effort of all the constituents of society - that is the stakeholders, including government; the general public etc; professional / service providers - and the corporate sector.

Of equal concern is the question of corporate social responsibility - what this means and how it can be operation aliased. Although there is an accepted link between good corporate governance and corporate social responsibility the relationship between the two is not clearly defined and understood. Thus many firms consider that their governance is adequate because they comply with The UK Corporate Governance Code, which came into effect in 2010. Of course, as we have previously stated, all firms reporting on the London Stock Exchange are required to comply with this code, and so these firms are doing no more than meeting their regulatory obligations. Although many companies regard corporate governance as simply a part of investor relationships, the more enlightened recognize that there is a clear link between governance and corporate social responsibility and make efforts to link the two. Often this is no more than making a claim that good governance is a part of their CSR policy as well as a part of their relationship with shareholders.

It is recognised that these are issues which are significant in all parts of the world and a lot of attention is devoted to this global understanding. Most analysis however is too simplistic to be helpful as it normally resolves itself into simple dualities: rules based v principles based or Anglo-Saxon v Continental. Our argument is that this is not helpful as the reality is far more complex. It cannot be understood without taking geographical, cultural and historical factors into account in order to understand the similarities, differences and concerns relating to people of different parts of the world.

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