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Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology - Roland Clift

Year 2016


ForewordIntroductionThe Industrial Ecology ParadigmThis BookReferencesPart I State-of-the-Art and Discussions of Research IssuesChapter 1: Industrial Ecology's First Decade1 Origins of Industrial Ecology2 Constructing the Field of Industrial Ecology3 Building the Tools of the Trade, 1990–20003.1 Life-Cycle Assessment3.2 Design for Environment3.3 Material Flow Analysis3.4 Socioeconomic Metabolism3.5 Input–Output Analysis3.6 UrbanMetabolism3.7 Industrial Symbiosis4 Becoming a Scholarly Field4.1 Conferences4.2 Scholarly Journals4.3 The International Society for Industrial Ecology4.4 Courses and Textbooks5 EpilogueReferencesChapter 2: Prospective Models of Society's Future Metabolism: What Industrial Ecology Has to Contribute1 Introduction1.1 The Great Transformation Ahead1.2 Scientific Response: The Interdisciplinary Systems Approach and Prospective Models1.3 Goal and Scope2 Principles of Prospective Models of Socioeconomic Metabolism2.1 Overview and General Principles2.2 Credible, Possible, and Likely Scenarios3 Prospective Modeling in Industrial Ecology: State of the Art3.1 Prospective Modeling with Established IE Methods3.2 New Approaches to Prospective Modeling in Industrial Ecology3.3 The Relation between Prospective IE Models and MFA, LCA, and I/O Analysis3.4 The Relation between Prospective IE Models and Consequential LCA4 Prospective Modeling in Industrial Ecology: Future Development4.1 Future Applications and Model Development4.2 Linking Industrial Ecology and Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs)5 ConclusionReferencesChapter 3: Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: What Is It and What Are Its Challenges?1 Introduction2 Definitions of LCSA3 Sustainability4 LCSA Definitions Adopted in Practice5 Main Challenges Identified in LCSA Studies So Far6 ConclusionsAnnex 1: Challenges Faced in the LCSA References from the Bibliometric AnalysisReferencesChapter 4: Industrial Ecology and Cities1 A False Dawn2 Formative Years of IE3 Into the Twenty-First Century4 Urban Metabolism5 Future DirectionsReferencesChapter 5 Scholarship and Practice in Industrial Symbiosis: 1989–20141 Introduction2 Part I: Why People Sometimes Equate Industrial Symbiosis with Industrial Ecology—Froschand Gallopoulos, Kalundborg, and Beyond3 Part II: Bounding Industrial Symbiosis in Time and Space—Distinctions and Differences3.1 Industrial Symbiosis: Old, New, or Hidden3.2 Single Industry Dominated vs. Multiple Industry Involvement3.3 Industrial Symbiosis and Eco-industrial Parks (EIPs)3.4 Diffusion of Industrial Symbiosis3.5 Understanding Industrial Symbiosis in a Chinese Context3.6 Organizational Drivers and Barriers4 Part III: Industrial Symbiosis in Both Scholarship and Practice4.1 Section A: Industrial Symbiosis in Scholarship4.2 Results and Analysis of Bibliometric Study4.3 Discussion of Industrial Symbiosis Research4.4 Section B: Industrial Symbiosis in Practice5 Conclusion: Industrial Symbiosis in a World of DifferenceAppendixReferencesChapter 6: A Socio-economic Metabolism Approach to Sustainable Development and Climate Change Mitigation1 Background2 A Socio-economic Metabolism Framework2.1 Energy2.2 Materials2.3 The Importance of Representing Stocks3 Problem Shifting3.1 Sustainable Development and the Carbon Budget4 Effective Policymaking: The Case of the Aluminium Sector4.1 Reducing Resource Use in the Product4.2 Changing the Demand for Stocks in Providing Services4.3 Timing5 The Socio-economic Metabolism Framework and WealthReferencesChapter 7 Stocks and Flows in the Performance Economy1 Introduction2 The Circular Economy – “Loop”, “Lake” and “Performance” Models3 Remanufacturing, Reprocessing and Product Life3.1 Material Intensity and Product-Service Intensity3.2 Remanufacturing and Reprocessing3.3 Product Life4 Economic and Social Implications4.1 Business Models in the Performance Economy4.2 Employment4.3 Fiscal Policy5 Industrial Ecology and the Performance EconomyReferencesChapter 8: Impacts Embodied in Global Trade Flows1 Introduction2 Impacts of Trade: New Insights from Recent Research2.1 Taking a Consumption-Based Perspective: What Are Impacts Embodied in Trade?2.2 Recent Research on Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts Embodied in International Trade3 Notes on Methodological Developments3.1 Merging of Disciplines3.2 Assessing Actual Impacts and Their Unsustainability3.3 Addressing Uncertainty in MRIO Modelling4 Is Trade Good or Bad? Some Final ThoughtsReferencesChapter 9: Understanding Households as Drivers of Carbon Emissions1 Introduction2 Consumption Accounting and Carbon Footprinting3 What Makes a Household Carbon Footprint?3.1 The Determinants of Household Carbon Footprints3.2 Composition of Household Carbon Footprints3.3 Looking Through the Lens of Time-Use4 The Rebound Effect5 Concluding CommentsReferencesChapter 10: The Social and Solidarity Economy: Why Is It Relevant to Industrial Ecology?1 Introduction2 Conceptual Links2.1 What Is the Social and Solidarity Economy?2.2 What Are the Conceptual Links between SSE and IE, and the Limits?3 Linkages Between the SSE and IE in Practice3.1 The Sharing Economy vs. End of Pipe Giving: Applicability to IE3.2 Community Currencies: Idea of Démurage and Applicability to IE3.3 Crowdfunding in the Solidarity Economy: towards IE Principles4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 11 Industrial Ecology in Developing Countries1 Introduction1.1 Benefits of IE for Developing Countries1.2 GDP Fixation1.3 Previous Studies on IE in Developing Countries1.4 IE in the Policy Context2 What Has Been Achieved by IE in the Global South?2.1 Hotspots of IE in the Global South2.2 Cleaner Production2.3 Eco-Industrial Development3 Current Issues3.1 Impact of Technology3.2 Impact of Population and Affluence3.3 Policy Development and Funding4 What Can IE Give to the Global South?4.1 Challenges, Metrics and Models5 How Can the Global South Contribute to IE?6 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 12:Material Flow Analysis and Waste Management1 Introduction – Historical and Institutional Perspectives2 Review of Empirical Studies from the Viewpoint of Target Wastes and Systems2.1 Waste in General2.2 Construction and Demolition Waste2.3 End-of-Life Vehicles and e-Waste2.4 Metals in Waste2.5 Phosphorus in Waste2.6 Waste Plastics2.7 Spatial System Boundaries3 MFA-Based Policies and Concepts for Sustainable Resource and Waste Management3.1 Conceptual Progress for Sustainable Resource and Waste Management and Its Relevance to MFA – Cases in China and Japan3.2 Initiatives in National and Intergovernmental Activities, Focusing on Policy Application of Economy-Wide MFA Indicators4 Current and Future DevelopmentsReferencesPart II Case Studies and Examples of the Application of Industrial Ecology ApproachesChapter 13: Circular Economy and the Policy Landscape in the UK1 Introduction2 The European Union's Development of Waste Policy and Resource Efficiency Initiatives3 UK Policy Responses to Circular Economy Objectives4 The Resource Security Action Plan5 Waste Prevention Plans6 ConclusionReferencesChapter 14: Industrial Ecology and Portugal's National Waste Plans1 Introduction2 Portuguese Waste Management Policy 1990–2014: The Contribution of Industrial Ecology3 PERSU 20204 Impact Assessment of the Portuguese National Plan for Municipal Solid Waste 2014–20204.1 Environmental Impacts4.2 Economic ImpactsReferencesChapter 15: The Role of Science in Shaping Sustainable Business: Unilever Case Study1 Introduction2 The Journey So Far3 Looking to the Future3.1 Conceptual Basis for Developing Scientific Approaches3.2 Applying the Planetary Boundaries Approach for Business Decision-Making4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 16: Practical Implications of Product-Based Environmental Legislation1 Introduction2 Dealing with Hazardous Substance Restrictions in Products3 Ensuring Energy Efficiency4 Managing Products at End of Life5 Discussion and ConclusionReferencesChapter 17: Multinational Corporations and the Circular Economy: How Hewlett Packard Scales Innovation and Technology in Its Global Supply Chain1 Circular Economy Introduction2 Why Innovation in Circular Economy Is Important2.1 Resource Availability2.2 Resource Efficiency2.3 Alignment of Conditions3 The Shift from Conceptual Ambiguity to Operational Clarity4 HP R2P2 program5 HP Device-as-a-Service Program6 HP Multijet Fusion 3D Printing7 ConclusionReferencesChapter 18: The Industrial Ecology of the Automobile1 Introduction2 Biofuels3 Powertrains4 Lightweight Materials5 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 19: Quantifying the Potential of Industrial Symbiosis: The LOCIMAP Project, with Applications in the Humber Region1 Introduction: Brief History of Industrial Symbiosis in the Humber Region2 The LOCIMAP Project3 LOCIMAP: Guiding Principles4 Prospects5 ConclusionReferences
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