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Green Transportation Logistics - Harilaos N. Psaraftis

Year 2016


PrefaceScopeChallengesAmbitious Environmental GoalsNumber of StakeholdersElusive DataWin–Win and the “Push-Down, Pop-Up” PrincipleBook OrganizationIntended AudienceAbout the EditorChapter 1 The Policy ContextAbbreviations1.1 Introduction1.2 The Background1.2.1 The European Sustainable Development Strategy1.2.2 Freight Transport Logistics Action Plan1.2.3 Greening Transport InventoryMultiple-impact measuresClimate changeLocal pollutionNoise pollutionCongestionAccidents1.2.4 The Strategy to Internalize the External Costs of Transportation1.3 Horizontal Policies1.3.1 The White Paper on Transport1.3.2 The New TEN-T Policy1.3.3 Clean Power for Transport Initiative1.3.4 The EU Transport Scoreboard1.4 Road Transportation1.4.1 Deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems1.4.2 New Dimensions and Weights1.4.3 Strategy for Reducing Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions1.5 Rail Transportation1.5.1 Liberalization of Railway Markets1.5.2 Rail Freight Corridors1.6 Waterborne Transportation1.6.1 The Adoption of EEDI and SEEMP1.6.2 The Sulphur Directive1.6.3 Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of CO2 EmissionsReferencesChapter 2 Transportation Emissions: Some BasicsAbbreviations2.1 Introduction2.2 Calculating Emissions2.2.1 The Top-Down or Fuel-Based Approach2.2.2 The Activity Based or Bottom Up Approach2.2.3 Calculation of GHG Emissions Based on the EN 16258 Standard2.2.4 The EcoTransIT World Emissions Calculator2.2.5 Allocation of Transportation Emissions2.2.6 Future Emissions and the Total Contribution to Climate2.3 Environmental Policy2.3.1 Emission Standards2.3.2 Incentive-Based Strategies2.4 Measuring Cost Effectiveness2.4.1 Cost Effectiveness Index2.4.1.1 MAC for a Specific Emissions Reduction Measure: An Illustrative Example2.4.2 Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) Curves2.4.3 Caveats of MAC Curves2.4.4 Use of MAC Curves in Strategic Policy Making2.4.5 Negative Marginal Abatement Costs2.5 Barriers to Energy Efficiency2.5.1 Definitions and Background2.5.2 The Nature of Barriers: A Taxonomy Based on Sorrell et al. (2004, 2011)2.5.3 Risk2.5.4 Imperfect Information2.5.5 Hidden Costs2.5.6 Access to Capital2.5.7 Split Incentives2.6 Discussion and ConclusionsReferencesChapter 3 Green Corridors BasicsAbbreviations3.1 Introduction3.2 Transportation Corridors3.3 The 'Green corridor' Concept3.4 Green Corridor Projects in Europe3.5 Key Performance Indicators3.5.1 The SGCI Criteria3.5.2 The EWTC KPIs3.5.3 The SuperGreen KPIs3.6 Corridor Benchmarking3.6.1 Early Works3.6.2 Benchmarking of the SuperGreen Corridors3.6.3 Guidelines for Corridor BenchmarkingReferencesChapter 4 Green Corridors and Network DesignAbbreviations4.1 Introduction4.2 Green Corridor Governance4.2.1 Corridor Functions4.2.2 Corridor Development Models4.2.3 Corridor Governance Structures4.3 The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T)4.3.1 The Pre-EU Era4.3.2 Early EU Efforts in Network Development4.3.3 The 2010 TEN-T Guidelines4.3.3.1 Objectives4.3.3.2 Scope and Priorities of the Network4.3.3.3 The Outline Plans and Specifications by Sector4.3.3.4 The Priority Projects4.3.3.5 Implementation of the Priority Projects4.3.4 The Recent Reform of the TEN-T4.4 How Do Green Corridors Relate to the TEN-T?4.4.1 Reliance on Co-modality4.4.2 Adequate Transshipment Facilities4.4.3 Integrated Logistics Concepts4.4.4 Reliance on Advanced Technology4.4.5 Energy Efficiency4.4.6 Use of Alternative Clean Fuels4.4.7 Development of Innovative Logistics Solutions4.4.8 Collaborative Business ModelsReferencesChapter 5 Benchmarking the SuperGreen Corridors with Green TechnologiesAbbreviations5.1 Introduction5.2 How to Benchmark a Green Corridor5.2.1 Objective5.2.2 Experience from the Literature5.2.3 The Green Corridor Benchmarking Methodology5.2.3.1 Phase 1: Analysis of the Corridor Baseline5.2.3.2 Phase 2: Survey of Green Technologies5.2.3.3 Phase 3: Creation of the Benchmark5.3 The SuperGreen Corridor Benchmark5.3.1 Technology-Specific Benchmark5.3.2 Corridor-Specific Benchmark5.3.3 Data Uncertainty5.3.4 The SuperGreen Knowledge Base5.4 Outlook of the SuperGreen Technology Enablers5.4.1 Cleaner Fuels: Natural gas5.4.2 Hybrid Concepts: Combinations of Multiple Energy Sources5.4.3 Energy Efficiency Improvements: Extend the Capabilities of Baseline Designs5.5 Conclusions5.5.1 Feedback from the SuperGreen Corridor Benchmark5.5.1.1 How to Develop a Representative Benchmark5.5.1.2 How to Use the Green Corridor Benchmark5.5.2 Green Technology EnablersReferencesChapter 6 ICT in Green Freight LogisticsAbbreviations6.1 Introduction6.2 Ecological Sustainability in the Transportation Sector6.3 Measures to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions6.4 ICT in European Freight Logistics6.4.1 Congestion Charging6.4.2 Unified Electronic Toll System6.4.3 Intelligent Transportation Systems6.4.4 European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS)6.4.5 Traffic Control Systems6.4.6 Speed Limits Depending on CO2 Values6.4.7 Intelligent Speed Adaption6.4.8 Road Weather Information Systems6.4.9 Road Speed Limiter6.4.10 Port Community Systems and Single Window Solution6.4.11 Sensors6.4.12 Green Trucks6.5 Installation of ICT Systems in European Freight Corridors6.5.1 Status Quo of ERTMS Installation6.5.2 Installation Costs6.5.3 Benefits of ERTMS Installation6.6 ConclusionReferencesChapter 7 Green Vehicle RoutingAcronyms and Abbreviations7.1 Introduction7.2 Fuel Consumption Models7.2.1 Macroscopic Models7.2.1.1 Methodology for Calculating Transportation Emissions and Energy Consumption7.2.1.2 Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transportation7.2.1.3 National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory7.2.2 Microscopic Models7.2.2.1 An Instantaneous Fuel Consumption Model7.2.2.2 A Comprehensive Modal Emission Model7.3 Pollution-Routing Problems7.3.1 Mathematical Model for the PRP7.3.2 ALNS Metaheuristic for the PRP7.3.3 The Bi-objective PRP7.3.4 Speed Optimization7.3.5 Other Types of PRPs7.3.5.1 The Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Emissions VRP7.3.5.2 The Energy-Minimizing VRP7.3.5.3 The VRP with Fuel Consumption Rate7.3.5.4 Other Related Work7.4 Case Studies7.5 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 8 Green Maritime Transportation: Market Based MeasuresAbbreviations8.1 Introduction8.1.1 Background8.1.2 Three Classes of Measures to Reduce Maritime Emissions8.1.3 Possible Role of MBMs8.2 Basic Concepts8.2.1 Carbon Coefficients8.2.2 CO2 Produced by International Shipping8.2.3 Marginal Abatement Costs8.2.4 MAC Curves8.2.5 Effect of a Bunker Levy on MAC Curves8.3 MBM Proposals Considered by the IMO8.4 Modeling to Evaluate the MBM Proposals8.5 Review of the MBM Proposals8.5.1 The Bahamas Proposal8.5.2 Hybrid MBM Proposals8.5.3 Jamaica's Proposal8.5.4 The IUCN Proposal8.5.5 The GHG Fund and ETS Proposals8.5.5.1 General Considerations8.5.5.2 Certainty in Cap vs. Certainty in Price8.5.5.3 Administrative Burden8.5.6 Carbon Leakage, Evasion and Fraud8.5.7 Experience from Other ETS Contexts8.5.8 Comparison Between GHG Fund and ETS8.6 Way Ahead8.6.1 Fate of MBMs8.6.2 Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV)ReferencesChapter 9 Green Maritime Transportation: Speed and Route OptimizationAbbreviations9.1 Introduction9.2 Ship Speed Optimization Basics9.3 Factors that Affect Fuel Consumption9.4 Impact of In-Transit Cargo Inventory Costs9.5 Speed Optimization in Mixed Chartering Scenarios9.6 Selected Results for Tankers and Bulk Carriers (Fixed Route)9.7 Combining Speed and Routing Decisions9.7.1 General Considerations9.8 Decomposition Property9.8.1 Freight Rate and Other Input Parameters May Influence the Routing Decision9.8.2 Multiple Optimal Speeds9.8.3 Expensive Cargoes Sail Faster and Induce More CO29.8.4 Sailing the Minimum Distance Route at Minimum Speed May Not Minimize Emissions9.9 Conclusions and Possible ExtensionsReferencesChapter 10 Being Green on Sulphur: Targets, Measures and Side-EffectsAbbreviations10.1 Introduction10.2 Speed Reduction as a Measure to Reduce SOx Emissions10.3 A Modal Shift Model and Case Study10.3.1 Methodology10.3.2 The Case Study10.3.3 The Road-Only Route10.3.4 The Combined-Transport Route10.3.5 Coefficient k10.3.6 Estimation of Parameter λ10.4 Modal Split and Sensitivity Analysis10.4.1 Fuel Prices10.4.2 Fuel Consumption10.4.3 Allocation of Additional Costs10.4.4 Modal Shift10.4.5 Sensitivity Analysis10.5 Environmental Implications10.6 Conclusions and Possible Extensions10.6.1 Conclusions10.6.2 Possible ExtensionsReferencesChapter 11 Critical Analysis of Air Emissions from Ships: Lifecycle Thinking and ResultsAbbreviations11.1 Introduction11.2 Life Cycle Assessment11.2.1 LCA Steps11.2.2 Life Cycle Impact Assessment11.3 Life Cycle Studies in Shipping11.4 Ship: LCA Framework11.4.1 Description of the Framework11.4.2 Framework Capabilities11.4.3 Ship Emissions Impact Assessment11.5 Case Study11.5.1 Case Study Ship11.5.2 Life Cycle Inventory11.5.3 Scenarios of Operation11.5.4 Assessment of Fleet Distribution11.5.5 Case Study of Ship Life Cycle Impact Assessment11.6 Discussion11.7 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 12 Green Rail Transportation: Improving Rail Freight to Support Green CorridorsAbbreviations12.1 Introduction12.2 European Rail Freight Policy12.2.1 Rail and the Transport White Paper12.2.2 Rail and Green Corridors Policy12.3 How Green Is Rail Freight?12.4 Review of EU Funded Rail Freight Focussed Research Projects12.4.1 Efforts to Develop an International Dimension in Rail Transport Systems12.4.2 Solutions to Enhance Rail Freight in Unexploited Markets12.4.3 Efforts to Improve Rail-Road Modal Transfer Points12.4.4 Demand for New Rail Freight Vehicle(s)12.4.5 Longer and Heavier Trains12.4.6 Axle Load, High Cube and Train Productivity12.4.7 Energy Use for Rail12.4.8 Signalling Systems for Rail12.4.9 Governance of Multi-Modal Corridors12.4.9.1 Review of Green Corridors Benchmarking12.4.9.2 Review of SuperGreen Conclusions, Results and Lessons, vis-a-vis Rail12.5 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 13 Emissions and Aviation: Towards Greener Air TransportAbbreviations13.1 Introduction13.2 Technological Developments13.2.1 Existing State-of-the-Art Aircraft Technology13.2.2 Future Aircraft Technology13.2.3 Fuel13.3 Operational Developments13.3.1 Air Traffic Management13.3.2 Airline Operations13.4 Policy Intervention13.5 System View13.6 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 14 Emissions and Inland NavigationAbbreviations14.1 Inland Navigation: A Natural Mode of Transport for Green Corridors14.2 The Policy Context for the Greening of Inland Navigation14.2.1 Actions and Objectives of Europe Commission and CCNR14.2.2 Regulation of Inland Navigation Emissions to Air14.3 Basic Facts and Issues Regarding Emissions from Inland Navigation14.3.1 Operating Conditions Particular to Inland Navigation that influence Energy Consumption14.3.2 Energy Consumption, Carbon Footprint and CO2 Emissions from Inland Navigation14.3.3 Pollutant Emissions from Inland Navigation14.3.4 Emissions Other Than Those from the Operation of the Vessels14.4 Possible Measures for the Reduction of Emissions to Air from Inland Navigation14.4.1 Measures for the Reduction of Energy Consumption and Emissions Regarding Technical Aspects of the Vessels14.4.2 Measures for the Reduction of Energy Consumption and Emissions Regarding Vessel Operation14.4.3 Estimated Potential for Reducing Energy Consumption and Emissions to Air from Inland Navigation with Technical and Operational Measures14.4.4 Measures Relating to Design and Equipment of Vessel Engines14.4.5 Use of Alternative Energy Sources (Fuels) to Reduce Emissions14.4.6 Infrastructure Measures for the Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Emissions14.4.7 Transport Management Measures for the Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Emissions14.5 Recommendations for Policy Makers and Decision Makers in the Inland Navigation SectorReferencesChapter 15 Directions for Further ResearchAbbreviations15.1 Introduction15.2 Strategic Research Agendas (SRAs): The European Scene15.3 Further R&D on Green Corridors15.3.1 GC.SST.1 Improvement of Green Supply Chain Design and Management15.3.1.1 Content and Scope15.3.1.2 Expected Impact15.3.2 GC.SST.2. ICT for Green Transportation Logistics15.3.2.1 Content and Scope15.3.2.2 Expected Impact15.3.3 GC.SST.3. Harmonization and Development of Policies and Regulations15.3.3.1 Content and Scope15.3.3.2 Expected Impact15.3.4 GC.SST.4. Development and Harmonization of Transportation Infrastructure15.3.4.1 Content and Scope15.3.4.2 Expected Impact15.3.5 GC.SST.5. Development and Harmonization of Transportation Technology15.3.5.1 Content and Scope15.3.5.2 Expected Impact15.3.6 GC.SST.6. Transparency of Information and Increased Cooperation in Co-modal Supply Chains15.3.6.1 Content and Scope15.3.6.2 Expected Impact15.4 Mode-Specific R&D Recommendations15.4.1 Waterborne and Intermodal-Specific R&D Recommendations15.4.1.1 Operational Recommendations15.4.1.2 ICT and Transportation Technology Recommendations15.4.1.3 Infrastructural Recommendations15.4.1.4 Recommendations Related to Policies, Legislation and Regulations15.4.2 Rail-Specific R&D Recommendations15.4.2.1 Operational Recommendations15.4.2.2 ICT and Transportation Technology Recommendations15.4.2.3 Infrastructural Recommendations15.4.2.4 Recommendations Related to Policies, Legislation and Regulations15.4.3 Road-Specific R&D Recommendations15.4.3.1 Operational Recommendations15.4.3.2 ICT and Transportation Technology Recommendations15.4.3.3 Infrastructural Recommendations15.4.3.4 Recommendations Related to Policies, Legislation and Regulations15.5 Green Transportation Logistics in Horizon 202015.5.1 Introduction15.5.2 Mobility for Growth15.5.2.1 Aviation15.5.2.2 Rail15.5.2.3 Road15.5.2.4 Waterborne15.5.2.5 Urban Mobility15.5.2.6 Logistics15.5.2.7 Intelligent Transport Systems15.5.2.8 Infrastructure15.5.2.9 Socioeconomic and Behavioural Research and Forward Looking Activities for Policy Making15.5.3 Green VehiclesReferences
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