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1.1 Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to delineate the term 'green' when used in the context of freight transportation logistics. This will be done by reviewing a number of relevant policy documents. At the same time, this review will set the scene for presenting the individual subjects of the following chapters.

The material presented here is mainly based on work performed under the “SuperGreen” project financed by the EC's 7th Framework Programme of Research and Technological Development. This is the reason for the distinctly European coverage of this chapter. It should be noted that material from the SuperGreen project has been updated to reflect developments after the end of the project (January 2013) and until October 2014. Also, the chapter provides some references to related policy documents issued by institutions like the International Maritime Organization (IMO). By the same token, coverage is limited to the regional scope of the EU, which usually reflects a negotiated compromise between the national views of the Member States.

Very often the term 'green' is used to refer to merely environmental protection

features. In this book, by 'green' we mean 'sustainable,' thus, adding economic and social attributes to the usual environmental ones (Fig. 1.1).

Fig. 1.1 The three dimensions of sustainable development. Source: The Sustainable Leader (2014)

Presenting a subject as wide and complex as the EU transport policy in the limited space of a book chapter is not an easy task. In addition, the broader perspective shown in Fig. 1.1 creates the need for reviewing a much wider range of EU policies. We are forced, then, to be very selective in our presentation and focus only on those documents that have a direct relevance to the search for win-win solutions of the following chapters. Although there is no guarantee that the author's personal biases have been left out entirely, every effort has been made to cover as many aspects of policy making as possible always in the context of green freight logistics.

The present chapter basically follows a modal structure. Road, rail and waterborne transportation are each covered in a separate section. Aviation is absent as the relevant material is presented in Chap. 13. Pipelines are outside the scope of the book. Within each mode (section), the documents reviewed are presented in chronological order.

Section 1.2 covers basic material published before 2010. After a brief discussion on the sustainability concept, the section presents the EU action plan on freight logistics and the so-called 'Greening transport package.' Section 1.3 is devoted to more recent documents but still horizontal in nature. It outlines the transportation strategy of the EU for the next decade, its new transportation infrastructure policy, its initiatives on alternative fuels and the newly introduced transport scoreboard. Section 1.4 relates to road transportation and presents the EC policy on ITS deployment and its proposals on revised dimensions and strategy formulation for reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from trucks. Section 1.5 deals with EC efforts to liberalize rail transportation and increase the priority of international freight trains. The last section of the chapter concerns waterborne transportation and more specifically IMO and EU initiatives addressing greenhouse gas (GHG) and SOx emissions of ships.

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