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1.3 Horizontal Policies

This section presents more recent policy documents which, due to their horizontal nature, cannot be allocated to one of the modal sections that comprise the remainder of this chapter.

The highest-level strategic document presenting the EC's vision for the future of

the EU transportation system and defining the policy agenda for the following decade is usually contained in a White Paper issued at the beginning of each decade, followed by its mid-term revision. The 2011 White Paper on transport, which is fully compatible with the Europe 2020 strategy and its “Resource Efficient Europe” flagship initiative, presented in Sect. 1.2.1, is the latest such document and will be briefly presented here.

The section will also present the EU policies in relation to transportation infrastructure and the deployment of alternative fuels in the transportation sector. The recently introduced EU transport scoreboard, comparing the performance of the Member States in a number of transportation-related issues completes the section.

1.3.1 The White Paper on Transport

The 2011 White Paper on Transport (EC, 2011a) is the single most important document in EU transport policy, as it describes the EC's vision of future transportation and the corresponding strategy for the next decade. More specifically, it takes a global look at developments in the transportation sector, at its future challenges and at the policy initiatives that need to be considered in the period until 2020 in order to meet the long-term requirement for limiting climate change to 2 oC. This general objective is translated into the following specific objectives:

(a) a reduction of transport-related GHG emissions by approximately 60 % by 2050 compared to 1990,

(b) a drastic decrease in the oil dependency of transport-related activities by 2050, and

(c) limiting the growth of congestion.

According to the document, the Commission's vision of future transport is:

a system that underpins European economic progress, enhances competitiveness and offers high quality mobility services while using resources more efficiently. Curbing mobility is not an option. New transport patterns must emerge, according to which larger volumes of freight are carried jointly to their destination by the most efficient (combination of) modes. Individual transport is preferably used for the final miles of the journey and performed with clean vehicles. Information technology provides for simpler and more reliable transfers. Transport users pay for the full costs of transport in exchange for less congestion, more information, better service and more safety.

Alternatively, this vision is expressed through three strands, which are listed below together with ten related benchmarks for achieving the GHG emissions reduction target:

• Improving the energy efficiency performance of vehicles across all modes; developing and deploying sustainable fuels and propulsion systems.

1. Halve the use of 'conventionally-fuelled' cars in urban transport by 2030; phase them out in cities by 2050; achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centers by 2030.

2. Low-carbon sustainable fuels in aviation to reach 40 % by 2050; also by 2050 reduce EU CO2 emissions from maritime bunker fuels by 40 % (if feasible 50 %).

• Optimizing the performance of multimodal logistic chains, including by making greater use of inherently more resource-efficient modes, where other technological innovations may be insufficient (e.g. long distance freight).

3. 30 % of road freight over 300 km should shift to other modes such as rail or waterborne transport by 2030, and more than 50 % by 2050, facilitated by efficient and green freight corridors. To meet this goal will also require appropriate infrastructure to be developed.

4. By 2050, complete a European high-speed rail network. Triple the length of the existing high-speed rail network by 2030 and maintain a dense railway network in all Member States. By 2050 the majority of medium-distance passenger transport should go by rail.

5. A fully functional and EU-wide multimodal TEN-T 'core network' by 2030,

with a high quality and capacity network by 2050 and a corresponding set of information services.

6. By 2050, connect all core network airports to the rail network, preferably high-speed; ensure that all core seaports are sufficiently connected to the rail freight and, where possible, inland waterway system.

• Using transport and infrastructure more efficiently through use of improved traffic management and information systems, and advanced logistics and market measures.

7. Deployment of the modernised air traffic management infrastructure (SESAR) in Europe by 2020 and completion of the European Common Aviation Area. Deployment of equivalent land and waterborne transport management systems (ERTMS, ITS, SSN and LRIT, RIS). Deployment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (Galileo).

8. By 2020, establish the framework for a European multimodal transport

information, management and payment system.

9. By 2050, move close to zero fatalities in road transport. In line with this goal, the EU aims at halving road casualties by 2020. Make sure that the EU is a world leader in safety and security of transport in all modes of transport.

10. Move towards full application of “user pays” and “polluter pays” principles and private sector engagement to eliminate distortions, including harmful subsidies, generate revenues and ensure financing for future transport investments.

The above mentioned targets shall be met through the following 4-tier strategy:

• Internal market: Create a genuine single European transport area by eliminating all residual barriers between modes and national systems, easing the process of integration and facilitating the emergence of multinational and multimodal operators.

• Innovation: EU research needs to address the full cycle of research, innovation and deployment in an integrated way through focusing on the most promising technologies and bringing together all actors involved.

• Infrastructure: The EU transport infrastructure policy needs a common vision and sufficient resources. The costs of transportation should be reflected in its price in an undistorted way.

• International: Opening up third country markets in transport services, products and investments continues to have high priority. Transportation is included in all trade negotiations with European participation (WTO, regional and bilateral).

Furthermore, a total of 131 actions, organised in 40 concrete initiatives, are proposed by the document for the materialization of this strategy.

 
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