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1.6 Waterborne Transportation

The international character of shipping makes the regulatory environment of this sector more efficient if agreed, adopted and implemented on a global basis. The International Maritime Organization (IMO), the standard-setting UN agency for the safety, security and environmental performance of international shipping, is the forum at which this process takes place. The promotion of sustainable shipping and sustainable maritime development is one of the major priorities of IMO in recent years.

IMO's drive to reduce GHG emissions from ships has followed thus far two

quasi-parallel tracks. One track relates to setting energy efficiency standards for new ships and has led to the adoption of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) in July 2011 at the 62nd session of IMO's Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 62). The EEDI is discussed in Sect. 1.6.1 below.

The other track concerns Market Based Measures (MBMs), of which more in Chap. 8 of this book. However, the proposed in June 2013 EU Regulation on monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions, constituting a first step towards an MBM, is presented in Sect. 1.6.3.

Meanwhile, in November 2012 the EU adopted Directive 2012/33/EU transposing into European law the IMO standards on maximum sulphur content of marine fuels adopted in 2008. This is the subject of Sect. 1.6.2.

1.6.1 The Adoption of EEDI and SEEMP

The IMO's Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) is a benchmarking scheme aiming to provide an indication of a merchant ship's CO2 output in relation to its transport work. Adoption of EEDI is the first step of IMO's drive to reduce CO2 emissions from shipping. The EEDI compares design-level CO2 emissions and transport work of a vessel and benchmarks this ratio against an IMO-set requirement.

For a given ship, the EEDI is provided by the following formula:

There is no need to explain all these symbols here. The numerator in the formula is a function of all power generated by the ship (main engine and auxiliaries), and the denominator is a product of the ship's deadweight and the ship's 'reference speed', appropriately defined as the speed corresponding to 75 % of the Maximum Continuous Rating of the ship's main engine. The units of EEDI are grams of CO2 per tonne mile.

The EEDI of a new ship is to be compared with the so-called 'EEDI (reference line),' which is defined as:

where DWT is the deadweight of the ship and a and c are positive coefficients determined by regression from the world fleet database, per major ship category.

For a given new ship, the attained EEDI value should be equal or less than the required EEDI value which is provided by the following formula:

where X is a 'reduction factor' specified for the required EEDI compared to the EEDI (reference line).

The values of X specified by the IMO are as follows:

• X ¼ 0 % for ships built from 2013 to 2015

• X ¼ 10 % for ships built from 2016 to 2020

• X ¼ 20 % for ships built from 2020 to 2025 and

• X ¼ 30 % for ships built from 2025 to 2030.

This means that it will be more stringent to be EEDI-compliant in the years ahead. If a ship's attained EEDI is above the required value, the ship is not allowed to operate until and unless measures to fix the problem are taken.

The reference line parameters a and c in Eqs. (1.1) and (1.2), which have been

finalised by regression analyses after a long debate within the IMO are presented in Table 1.2 below, although they are subject to revision.

For Ro-Ro ferries the basic concept seems the same at first glance, but the EEDI (reference line) formula is more complex in that its various coefficients are not constant.

The basic philosophy of EEDI, which applies to all ships of 400 GRT and above, is to build ships that are more energy efficient, that is, reduce emissions (numerator) per unit of transport work (denominator). Measures to achieve this end are intended to be mostly technological.

Table 1.2 EEDI reference line parameters a and c for various ship types

In contrast to EEDI, which relates to the design of new ships, IMO adopted in July 2011 the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), which addresses energy saving at the operational stage and applies to all (existing and new) ships above 400 GRT. SEEMP takes the form of a mandatory management plan and aims to establish a mechanism for a shipping company and/or a ship to improve the energy efficiency of ship operations through four steps: planning, implementation, monitoring, and self-evaluation and improvement.

The Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) has been proposed by the IMO as a monitoring tool in the SEEMP. The EEOI is calculated by the following formula, in which a smaller EEOI value means a more energy efficient ship:

The intention was to develop a formula enabling the continuous monitoring of individual ships in operation and thereby quantifying the impact of any change made to the ship or its operation. However, it should be clarified that ships operate under a broad variety of different conditions, some of which are beyond the control of their operators. As such, although EEOI has been adopted as an indicator to be used for assessing the performance of individual ships in the framework of SEEMP, industry circles consider its use for comparisons between ships to be flawed (ICS, 2013).

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