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Chapter 2 Transportation Emissions: Some Basics

Christos A. Kontovas and Harilaos N. Psaraftis

Abstract Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth's atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health. The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions and its contribution to climate change. In addition, this chapter presents the basics of environmental policy measures. In that context, we describe a way to measure the cost-effectiveness of various measures through the so-called Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC). Finally, the chapter deals with the topic of the energy efficiency gap and examines why governments and companies may forego costeffective investments in energy efficiency, even though they could significantly reduce energy consumption at a lower cost.

Abbreviations

ACEA European Automobile Manufacturers Association AR5 Fifth Assessment Report

CAC Command and control approach

CBDR Common but differentiated responsibilities CH4 Methane

CO Carbon monoxide

CO2 Carbon dioxide

CO2eq Carbon dioxide equivalent

Defra UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs EC European Commission

EEA European Environment Agency EEDI Energy efficiency design index

EIA Energy Information Administration EPA US Environmental Protection Agency EU European Union

GHG Greenhouse gas

gr Grams

Gtons Gigatonnes

HFO Heavy fuel oil

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization IEA International Energy Agency

Ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research IMO International Maritime Organization

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change kg Kilograms

km Kilometers

LCA Life cycle assessment MAC Marginal abatement cost MBM Market based measures MDO Marine diesel oil

MGO Marine gas oil

MOVES MOtor vehicle emission simulator MT Metric tonnes

NOx Nitrogen oxides

NPV Net present value

O3 Ozone

PM Particulate matter

PV Present value

RCP Representative concentration pathways RENFE Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Espa~noles RF Radiative forcing

SBB Schweizerische Bundesbahnen SEAP Sustainable Energy Action Plan

SNCB Socie´te´ Nationale des Chemins de fer Belges

SNCF Socie´te´ Nationale des Chemins de Fer Franc¸ais SO2 Sulphur dioxide

SRES Special Report on Emissions Scenario tn Tonnes

UK United Kingdom

UN United Nations

UNFCCC United Nations Framework Conference on Climate Change US United States (of America)

VOC Volatile organic compounds

 
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