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2.2.3 Calculation of GHG Emissions Based on the EN 16258 Standard

As stated above, one of the main problems with measuring or estimating the footprint of transportation is that it is a complicated process and there has been no standard way of doing it. Different sectors use different ways to estimate emissions and even within the same sector differences may exist between different companies. Much work has been done related to GHG emissions basically due to the mandatory reporting (see Kyoto Protocol) but the literature related to non-GHG emissions is more fragmented. The publication of the European standard EN 16258 (CEN, 2012), covering a Methodology for calculation and declaration of energy consumption and GHG emissions of transport services (freight and passengers) in 2012 was welcomed by many logistics companies. This standard sets out the methodology and requirements for calculating and reporting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation services. This first edition of the standard was primarily focused on energy consumption and emissions associated with vehicles during the operational phase of the lifecycle, the so-called “tankto-wheels” assessment. However, when calculating the energy consumption and emissions associated with vehicles, account is also taken of the energy consumption and emissions associated with energy processes for fuels and/or electricity used by vehicles (including for example production and distribution of transportation fuels). This ensures the EN 16258 standard takes a “well-to-wheel” approach when undertaking calculations, and when making declarations to transportation service users. Thus, in the so-called “well-to-wheels assessment” estimations are related to both vehicle and energy processes.

Table 2.3 is taken from the EN 16258 standard and presents the GHG emission factors for the main transportation fuels.

2.2.4 The EcoTransIT World Emissions Calculator

A variety of transportation emissions calculators exist. Among them we mention the so-called 'EcoTransIT World' calculator.

This is a web-based tool developed by the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (ifeu), the O¨ ko-Institut, the Rail Management Consultants GmbH (RMCon/IVE mbH), all from Germany, in order to quantify the emissions from freight transportation. This project was initiated by five European railway companies in 2000—DB Schenker Rail, the Schweizerische Bundesbahnen (SBB), Green Cargo AB, Trenitalia S.p.A, the Socie´te´ Nationale des Chemins de Fer Franc¸ais (SNCF), the Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Espa~noles (RENFE) and the Socie´te´ Nationale des Chemins de fer Belges (SNCB). Although this is basically a rail consortium, the tool covers all surface modes.

Table 2.3 Transportation fuels: density, energy factor and GHG emission factor

EcoTransIT identifies the environmental impacts of freight transportation in terms of direct energy consumption and emissions during the operation of vehicles during the transport of products. Moreover, the calculation covers the indirect energy consumption and emissions related to production, transportation and the distribution of energy required for operating the vehicles. Although one basic mode of operation of the tool has some average built-in parameters, the user can also alter the inputs and other parameters of the EcoTransIT application, according to a company's individual conditions.

More on this tool can be found at the following link: about.en.html.

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