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3.5.3 The SuperGreen KPIs

The KPI selection part of the SuperGreen project was a cumbersome procedure that drew heavily on stakeholder input. It was performed in two distinct phases. During the first phase, a process involving the compilation of a gross list of performance indicators, their categorization into five different groups and their filtering during detailed discussions among project partners resulted in an initial set of KPIs. The five KPI groups (efficiency, service quality, environmental sustainability, infrastructural sufficiency, and social issues) were formed so as to combine all three sustainability dimensions with the adequacy of the capacity, condition and administrative framework of the corridor infrastructure (the so-called 'enabling indicators' of SGCI and EWTC). These initial KPIs are presented in Table 3.4 along with their respective definition.

Table 3.4 Initial set of SuperGreen KPIs KPIs Units


Absolute cost


Relative cost


Service quality

Transport time


Reliability (time precision)

% of shipments delivered on time (within acceptable window)

Frequency of service

Number of services per year

ICT applications

Graded scale (1–5)

– Cargo tracking, availability

Graded scale (1–5)

– Cargo tracking, integration

Graded scale (1–5)

and functionality

– Other ICT serv., availability

Graded scale (1–5)

– Other ICT serv., integration

Graded scale (1–5)

and functionality

Cargo security

Number of incidents per total number of shipments

Cargo safety

Number of incidents per total number of shipments

Environmental sustainabilitya




g/1,000 tonne-km


g/1,000 tonne-km


g/1,000 tonne-km

Infrastructural sufficiency


Average delay (hours) per tonne-km


– Geography

– Infrastructure capacity

– Infrastructure condition

– Administration

Graded scale (1–5) based on list of bottlenecks per category, accompanied by list of projects aiming at their removal/ mitigation

KPIs Units

Social issues

Corridor land use

– Urban areas

– Sensitive areas

% of buffer zoneb covered by urban areas

% of buffer zoneb covered by environmentally sensitive areas

Traffic safety

Sum of fatalities and serious injuries per year per million ton-km


% of corridor length above 50/55 dB

Source: Moyano et al. (2012)

aWell-to-wheel approach

bShaped by a radius of 20 km around the median line of the corridor

Table 3.5 Revised set of SuperGreen KPIs



Out-of-pocket costs (excluding VAT)


Transport time (or average speed)

Hours (or km/h)

Reliability of service (in terms of time precision)

% of shipments delivered within acceptable window

Frequency of service

Number of services per year

CO2-eq emissions


SOx emissions


Source: Ilves et al. (2011)

With the aim of soliciting feedback, this initial set (together with the proposed benchmarking methodology that will be presented in the following section) was presented in three events: two regional stakeholder workshops (in Napoli, Italy and in Antwerp, Belgium) and a meeting of the project's Advisory Committee. The general consensus was that in broad terms the proposed KPIs cover all basic facets of the problem. However, there was also a general sense that the indicators were too ambitious and there was a need to simplify them so that the set be practical. In that sense, reducing the set of KPIs to a more manageable one was considered as a desirable outcome.

Following an internal round of KPI screening, a revised set was presented to a third regional SuperGreen workshop, organized in Malm€o, Sweden and hosted by the Swedish Transport Administration. The aim was to set a basis for collaboration with the numerous green corridor initiatives in the Baltic region and take advantage of an audience directly or indirectly exposed to the green corridor concept. The KPI set that resulted from this process is the one of Table 3.5. This set was reaffirmed at a fourth regional stakeholder workshop of the project in Sines, Portugal.

It is worth noting that four of the six indicators concern economic efficiency (transportation costs accompanied by three KPIs related to quality of service—time, reliability and frequency), while the remaining two reflect environmental concerns (GHG and sulphur emissions). The social aspects are absent, probably signifying a secondary role that stakeholders attach to them when it comes to freight logistics.

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