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Chapter 2 Market Orientation Conception on Commercialization of University

Research Products with Moderating Effect of organizational culture

Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between market orientation and commercialization of university research products with the moderating effect of organizational culture. This is due to a report that indicates that Malaysian public universities score low in commercialization of their research products. Quantitative approach method will be applied in this study with 354 sets of questionnaires distributed to 5 research universities in Malaysia. Since this paper is intended to focus on its conceptual nature, it discusses only the synthesis of literature findings. Limitations are not going to be discussed in the empirical discussion. The conceptual contribution of this paper goes one step further by suggesting the factors that may influence the enhancement of commercialization of university research products in Malaysia.

2.1 Introduction

Nowadays, research commercialization has been receiving significant attention from scholars due to its capability in promoting the growth of a nation economy and in playing a role as future investment of the nation [1, 2]. It is proven from developed countries, such as the United States and Canada that are involved in research commercialization activities earlier and have managed to generate more than $1 billion income annually for their respective countries [3].

Realizing the importance of research commercialization, Malaysia sees it as an agent of generating new source of income for the nation. Besides, commercialization of university research products may assist Malaysia to achieve the status of high-income nation by the year 2020. The Malaysian Government has started to create many initiatives to support this activity, namely, establishing policies and programs as well as raising the research and development (R&D) funds to accelerate the commercialization interest. As part of the plan for innovation, the government has allocated RM 1.6 billion in the Eighth Malaysia Plan (2001–2005), appropriated for research, development, and commercialization of technology compared to RM 1 billion during the Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996–2000).

The Malaysian Government expected universities to play a vital role in supporting innovation and technology commercialization. The university role is not only to train and teach undergraduate and postgraduate students but also to be involved in research and development. From these activities, the next conventional role of the university is to commercialize its research products. Furthermore, the university must create start-up or spinout companies [4].

The government has delegated huge responsibility on the universities because of

the recognition it has given on the ability of universities to be part of the distribution, creation, and application of knowledge and the capability of universities to be engaged in science-based entrepreneurial activities. These activities will fruitfully produce innovative research and will lead to the successful product commercialization [5]. Since the Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006–2010), RM 3.101 billion of public fund was channeled to research and development (R&D) in the university. Meanwhile, under the Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011–2015), the government again allocated RM 741 million for universities in the first 2 years of the 5-year plan. The allocation was to be managed by the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE). In line with the new directives, the ministry announced a set of four research and development schemes which are (1) Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS); (2) Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS), Long-Term Grant Scheme (LRGS), and Prototype Research Grant Scheme (PRGS); (3) Research Incentive; and (4) MOHE Special Project to utilize the RM 741 million allocations. The increase in the amount in spending of research grants has indicated that the Malaysian Government is serious in walking the talk toward commercializing research products as this is one of the critical agenda in the Malaysia Plan [1].

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