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B. Customer Orientation

Narver and Slater [10] state that the heart of market orientation is customer orientation. Customer orientation will continuously help understand the needs of not only the current customers but also potential target customers. They will use that knowledge for creating customer value. Besides focusing on customer value, customer orientation can also lead to superior financial performance when the organization can satisfy their customers' needs and wants. From that, it would motivate the group of satisfied customers and potentially loyal ones who would continually do business with the organization. Thus, it shows that customer orientation has a positive influence on firm innovation and performance [17]. Based on the previous research, the next proposition predicts the relationship between customer orientation and commercialization of university research products.

C. Competitor Orientation

Competitor orientation is the constant understanding of the capabilities and strategies of the principal current and future competitors that use the knowledge in creating superior customer value [16]. In line with that statement, however, there are some different opinions by authors. Competitor orientation is not only to understand the ability and strategies of the organizations' competitors, but also the organization must measure themselves compared to the target competitor by recognizing their own strengths and weaknesses. By identifying their own strengths and weaknesses, it can be the organization's competitive advantage, and it will lead to serving customer better than the competitor. This is very important in a competitive environment, with multiple firms competing for market share [17, 18]. From the previous researches, it shows that competitor orientation is very important toward commercialization of university research products since competitor orientation may create a competitive advantage for a new firm created by university commercialization activity. Perhaps, understanding ability of current and future competitor and identifying its own strengths and weaknesses will be the best strategies for university researcher to enhance the commercialization rate of university research products. Thus, the proposition below expects the relationship between competitor orientation and commercialization of university research products.

 
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