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D. Inter-functional Coordination

According to Narver and Slater [10], inter-functional coordination is the coordination of all functions in the business that utilizes customer and other market information to create superior value for customers. Organizations with better inter-functional coordination would have better ability to create, retain, and transfer knowledge within the firm. Thus, better inter-functional coordination allows the firm to use knowledge about the customers and competitors more effectively [17]. This study sees that inter-functional coordination plays an important factor in successful commercializing of university research products because researchers can share expertise, knowledge, and experience via interor intrafaculty within the university. For example, researchers from the engineering faculty may seek advice from the business faculty on marketing strategies and vice versa. Hence, it may create a competitive advantage for the new product that will be commercialized. Thus, the following proposition predicts the relationship between inter-functional coordination and commercialization of university research products.

E. Commercialization of University Research Products

Nowadays, commercialization of university research products has been receiving much attention due to the ability to help in the growth of the nation's economy. This has resulted in significant policy initiatives such as the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 in the United States to promote the commercial exploitation of invention that has resulted from government-funded research and similar initiatives in European countries. The US Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 is the most well-known government policy stimulating commercialization. The growth in patenting and licensing activities, observed in US universities in the 1980s and 1990s, is often attributed to the passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980 [19]. In terms of definition, commercialization is a term that bounds up with the word “commerce.” This shows that commercialization activities and the products produce from those activities are being the subject of commerce. Commercialization involves the basic assumption that an entity which is the product exists and that it is possible to design and manufacture that particular entity. This entity then needs to be made tradable, for example, subject to buying and selling. The activities that make it happen are called commercialization [20, 21].

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