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F. MO Toward Commercialization of University Research Products

MO has been mostly studied toward business performance. The outcome of MO on business performance has been widely investigated by previous studies in different business contexts, and the result frequently shows positive and significant relationship with the organization performance [10, 14]. Inappropriately, nevertheless, there has been a strong agreement among the previous studies regarding the relationship between MO and business performance. However, there is limited study that has tested the relationship between MO and performance of commercialization university research products. Thus, in this study, the researcher intends to test the relationship between MO and commercialization of university research products.

G. Moderating Effect of Organizational Culture

This study intends to test organizational culture as the moderating factor because according to Ismail et al. [22] “university researcher are facing problem to commercialize their research because they are having much responsibility such as teaching various subject at various levels (undergraduate students, postgraduate students) researching, consulting, supervision of postgraduate research students, writing research article for publication, holding administrative position, working in government committees and as well trying to innovate and manage spin off venture.” From this statement, it shows that Malaysian university's culture still does not support the commercialization and innovation activities with burden on the researchers (who are also at the same time teaching) with bundles of work and responsibility. With having much responsibility, time to focus in commercialization is also being reduced. Even though researchers have high MO, it cannot increase the commercialization due to the unsupported organizational culture.

Organizational culture is very important in determining the organizational performance. According to Lucky et al. [23], organizational culture is a crucial factor to determine the success or failure of entrepreneurial development and business activities. It is because according to Kuratko and Welsch [24] and Abdullah Kaid and Rosli [25], organization that has an effective culture will understand that the competitive advantage does not last forever. Thus, they encourage constant changes and establish never-ending innovation environment. Hence, with organizational culture, it will create uniqueness and inimitability to an organization. In terms of definition, organizational culture can be defined as the values, beliefs, and hidden assumptions that organizational members have in common [26].

In agreement with that statement, Spacapan and Bastic [27] define organizational culture as “the way we do things around here.” It reflects the norms and deeply rooted values and beliefs that are shared by people in an organization. Meanwhile, Henrie and Sousa-Poza June [28] come out with different view of organizational culture. It has not been comprehensively studied, due to the reasons that determining organizational culture is not an easy job, and, therefore, there is confusion over the definition of culture. However, in this study, the researchers believe that organizational culture can be a very important factor that will moderate the relationship between MO and commercialization of university researcher products. This is because according to Spacapan and Bastic [27], organizational culture can affect level of entrepreneurship and innovation in an organization through socialization processes. These, in turn, influence individual's behavior, through structures, policies, and procedures that are shaped by the basic values and beliefs of the organizations.

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