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2.4 Proposed Conceptual Framework and Hypothesis Development

From the discussion and extensive literature review, the researchers proposed a conceptual framework to organize and direct the research. The diagram in Fig. 2.1 shows that independent variable is market orientation (MO) components which consist of customer orientation, competitor orientation, and inter-functional coordination. Meanwhile, the dependent variable is commercialization of university research products, and the moderating variable is the organizational culture. Based

Fig. 2.1 The proposed conceptual framework

on this conceptual framework, the researchers develop the research hypotheses for the study. Thus, from the above discussion, the following hypotheses are being postulated:

Hypothesis 1 There is a positive relationship between market orientation and commercialization of university research products.

Hypothesis 1a There is a positive relationship between customer orientation and commercialization of university research products.

Hypothesis 1b There is a positive relationship between competitor orientation and commercialization of university research products.

Hypothesis 1c There is a positive relationship between inter-functional coordination and commercialization of university research products.

Hypothesis 2 Organizational culture will moderate the relationship between market orientation and commercialization of university research products.

Hypothesis 2a Organizational culture will moderate the customer orientation and commercialization of university research products.

Hypothesis 2b Organizational culture will moderate the competitor orientation and commercialization of university research products.

Hypothesis 2c Organizational culture will moderate the inter-functional coordination and commercialization of university research products.

2.5 Methodology

This research will focus only on universities having the research university (RU) status in Malaysia, namely, Universiti Malaya (UM), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). This is due to the nature of the research university that focuses on research and commercialization activities compared to other universities that focus on teaching and learning. The research will be focusing on science and technology-based faculties. This is due to the data provided by MOHE in the report that indicates the majority of the research having potential to be commercialized is science and technology-based product. Social sciences research has limited potential to be commercialized [8]. Respondents in this research include professors, associate professors, senior lecturers, and lecturers who are actively involved in research and commercialization activities. Based on the universities and MOHE directory, the total number of RU researchers in the science and technology discipline is 4,044 persons. According to Krejcie and Morgan [29] as cited in Sekaran [30], the minimum sample size is 354 respondents of population. Furthermore, Saunders et al. [31] have highlighted that with the number population of 10,000 the sample size of 354 will provide 5 % margin of error. The greater the proportion of the total population sampled, the smaller the margin of error.

In this study, the researcher uses cross-sectional studies where the data will be collected at one time, perhaps over a period of months in order to get the answer from the respondents. Directory of each faculty university's website will be the main source which the researcher attempts to reach the respondents. From the directory, the researcher retrieves the e-mail and telephone number of each respondent, and the questionnaire will be disseminated through personally administered questionnaire. The advantages of using this technique in collecting data are that the researcher is able to establish rapport and also to motivate the respondents to answer the questionnaires. Any doubts that respondents face can be solved immediately by the researcher. Sekaran [30] also states that almost 100 % response rate is ensured when using this technique. The unit of analysis is individual person.

All primary data will be processed and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The results will be tabulated in the form of descriptive statistic, reliability testing, Pearson's correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Frequency distribution is used to gather the frequencies from all the respondent personal data or classification variables such as age, gender, level of income, position, level of education, and other related information. Meanwhile, reliability testing purpose is to obtain consistency and stability of each variable. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis will be used to test the hypotheses and identify the most contributing factors of independent variables toward commercialization.

 
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