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F. Governance

Gertsen et al. [22] reasoned that issues in governance and accounting generate severe damage to the reputation of a company together with the individual reputations of the top executives. Restoring reputation normally requires real actions; nevertheless, it also needs clear communications about what the company did to address the problems and also what are the plans that the company will do to prevent all these problems from reappearing. Almost every circumstance of failure in governance and also accounting was associated with deficiencies in transparency or perhaps intentionally misleading communications. Because of that, building and maintaining a solid corporate reputation need high levels of transparency [23].

As a leading and largest cafe´ chain in Malaysia, with Halal accreditation awarded by Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM), Secret Recipe is focused on consistently adhering to the requirements of the preparation of all food as well as processing plant in the restaurant according to the regulatory guidelines including HACCP and VHM guidelines.

G. Innovation

The Reputation Institute [19] claimed that innovation is one of the fundamentals used by the company to build a competitive advantage. Therefore, essential platform companies can depend on to distinguish themselves from business competitors which they develop respect, admiration, and trust from stakeholders. Academic researches provide results that a reputation for innovation contributes to several business and reputational benefits such as customer loyalty, improved favorability, pattern to pay premium price, and perhaps most significantly customer interest [11].

At the same time, Guillerme [24] claimed that almost all business sectors are not created equal in terms of creating excitement. In the current context, the task is undoubtedly much easier for a technology company as compared to a large food and drink company. Although the high-tech industry has created numerous disrupting innovations lately, such as tablets, applications for smartphones, streaming technologies, and many others, yet, the consumer goods industry has actually emphasized on product alterations such as enhanced taste of the foods as well as drinks, varying portion sizes, convenient packaging, and so on [5].

H. Workplace

Essentially, the most dreaded issues that a company owner may ever really ought to deal with are the issues that can potentially arise when a number of employees are dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction experienced by many employees can sometimes spread just like a disease which may inevitably tarnish the company's external reputation simply by poor production, improper customer service, as well as negative feedback or even complaints. Considering that the reputation is truly one of a business's topnotch selling points, it is crucial for business owners to make sure that their employees are happy and satisfied so that they are able to keep on performing at their maximum levels. As soon as the internal reputation of a business is positive, that feeling will be extended to the outside simply by the actions of the employees, which in turn would greatly have an impact on how the company reputation is viewed by those outside of the company.

I. Citizenship

Citizenship in the RepTrak™ model which formulated by Fombrun in partnership with the Reputation Institute claimed stakeholders whether or not they consider a company as environmentally responsible, supporting good reasons, as well as having a positive impact on public. A company with a good corporate citizenship is the company that will get high recognition on these three attributes. Citizenship is finally an essential part of doing business, and it contributes greatly to market the company. A good reputation elicits supportive behaviors from lots of different people who desire to work for, purchase from, as well as invest in companies they like, trust, and admire [8].

J. Leadership

Cited from the Business Times written by Ping [15], in any business, leadership is a central feature; nevertheless, the form which it takes depends remarkably on a firm's stage of growth. For SMEs, this will incorporate taking part in an active position in the management of the company as well as establish a vision to make sure that the employees realize exactly where they are heading. Turner and Mavin [25] mentioned that in large companies, on the other hand, managers might be less involved with the day-to-day management of the company. The managers possess more leadership roles by developing the objectives that the company desires to reach, as well as considering the strategy to be adopted in order to achieve them [18]. However, SME managers are required to manage the company actively and even set directions for the firm. This is actually not an easy task; indeed, it can be a relatively well-known phenomenon that few start-up entrepreneurs have the capabilities and skills which are requirements for them to manage their establishment when it grows beyond the start-up stage [26] (Fig. 3.1).

Fig. 3.1 Framework of the RepTrakTM model

Fig. 3.2 Framework of the RepTrakTM model

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