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A. Research Questions

Motivated by a perceived need to investigate how and to what extent ICT can enable a more participative systems of governing and supporting both MPs and citizens, the study was conducted to answer the following research questions:

1. How frequently do Malaysian MPs utilize the Internet per day and the type of ICT tools employed for communications?

2. What is the most determinant individual factors (perceived usefulness, perceived

ease of use, perceived self-efficacy) in determining whether to continue using the Internet communication?

B. Methodology

Analysis of the individual factors contributing toward the continuance use of the Internet technologies among the MPs is the subject examined in this study. Given the intricate nature of Internet communication, this study used empirical methods or quantitative approach in collecting data. In order to evaluate the extent of usage by MPs and to avoid the novelty effect of the utilization of the technology, it is pertinent to conduct a survey covering all MPs totaling 222 of them. The questions on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived self-efficacy were adopted from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which are well established in the literature.

A total of 67 respondents who returned the questionnaire or interviewed were from diverse profile, comprising of both male and female respondents aged between 38 and 65 years old. The respondents were not discriminated against any criteria; the main criterion was that they had adopted or were using ICTs in their daily chores as MPs. In addition to online postings, researchers have made every attempt to meet the MPs in person, whether at their office, home, or even at the parliamentary lobby. Meantime, the respondents' e-mail and contact details were obtainable through the parliament's office using official means. In addition to the facilities provided by the parliament for the medium of communication, the MPs themselves also have their own initiative to interact with the constituents. As indicated in the above discussion, the most common ICT tools used by MPs to communicate with the public are personal website, blog, e-mail, and online social networking. This is the determining factor in choosing all MPs for the study. Since it is not easy to get the MPs as they are normally have busy schedule, the reported findings that focused on the quantitative analysis are as shown in the analysis of findings section.

Data was collected in two phases for a period of 6 months. The first phase was considered as pre-13th General Election (GE) in which a set of questionnaire was distributed and a face-to-face interview was conducted. Phase two, which is during the post-GE 13th, was focused on getting the fresh MPs who have won the mandate by the people of their respective constituents.

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