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6.4 Analysis of Findings

A. Reliability Analysis

The reliability is an indication of the consistency with which the instrument measures the concepts and helps to access the goodness of measure [23]. Therefore, reliability is a measure of how closely the various items that constitutes a scale correlate. There are many different types of reliability estimates. One of the most widely used tests is Cronbach's alpha employed in this study as shown in Table 6.1.

B. Multicollinearity Assumption

This is a crucial assumption required to be observed in correlation analysis among independent variables. As such, the assumption was tested as shown in Table 6.2.

Table 6.1 Reliability test result for variables

Variable

Number of item

Cronbach's alpha

Usefulness

5

0.95

Ease of use

7

0.86

Self-efficacy

6

0.97

MP continuance to use

9

0.84

Table 6.2 Multicollinearity assumptions

Table 6.3 Degree of internet usage per/day for communication among MPs

No. of time for communication

Frequency

Percentage (%)

1 time

3

4.8

2 times

6

9.5

3 times

7

11.1

4 times

6

9.5

5 times

41

65.1

The results of variance inflation factor (VIF) for all individual factors show that multicollinearity is not a problem in this study since the values 1.00 (usefulness),

1.78 (ease of use), and 3.92 (self-efficacy) are far below the threshold of between 5 and 10 [24].

C. Descriptive Statistic Results

To answer the first research question in this study, a descriptive statistical analysis is employed. The question asks for the extent to which MPs in Malaysia use the Internet for communications with one another. In this respect, Table 6.3 shows the degree of the Internet usage among the MPs for communication. According to the results majority of them use it between 1 and 5 h per day. Most of the MPs (65 %) utilize the Internet for communication five times in a day for engaging and communication with themselves, followed by about 11 % who have always used it three times per day. In addition, 10 % of the MPs utilized it for four times per day in communicating with their colleagues and the people they represent in various constituencies. The lowest frequency of using the Internet per day among MPs is at least one time or 5 % approximately according to Table 6.3.

Surprisingly, only about 10 % have always used it two times per day just like those who use it four times per day. A critical assessment of this usage reflects that there could be other means or channels through which communications are being carried out between the MPs and the government agencies or people they represent. Among the alternative channels could be direct phone call, fax, and even face-toface engagement.

With respect to the type of technology tools used for Internet communications among MPs and their people, the findings in Table 6.4 have shown that majority of them utilized smartphone (yes, 82.3 %) followed by Twitter and Facebook with

76.6 % yes and 69.8 % yes, respectively. In addition, about 66.7 % of the MPs confirmed that yes they always utilize their blog as an Internet tool for communications and followed by e-mail (64 %). As relatively compared with other tools, it is

Table 6.4 Types of technology tools used for Internet communications

Technology tools

Frequency of use

Percentage (%)

Yes

No

Yes

No

E-parliamentary website

24

39

38.1

61.9

E-mail

40

23

63.5

36.5

Blog

42

21

66.7

33.3

Facebook

44

19

69.8

30.2

Twitter

47

16

76.6

25.4

Smartphone

55

8

82.3

12.7

Others

3

60

4.8

95.2

quite surprising that only little (yes, 38.1 %) of the MPs communicated via the e-parliamentary website provided by the government. The result also indicates that only minimal percentage (yes, 4.8 %) of the MPs utilize other means such as faceto-face and/or phone call to engage with others. Higher usage of Internet ICT tools for communications could be cost saving among MPs as compared to alternative phone calls or costs of face-to-face in moving from one place to another.

 
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