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Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals - Satinder Kaur Brar

Year 2014


Part I General ConceptsChapter 1 Waste Biomass: A Prospective Renewable Resource for Development of Bio-Based Economy/Processes1.1 Introduction1.2 Waste Biomass1.2.1 Types of Waste Biomass/Potential Waste Biomass Resources1.2.2 Nature of Biomass Feedstock1.3 Bio-Based Economy/Processes1.4 Value Addition of Waste Biomass1.4.1 Biotransformation of Biomass1.4.2 Direct Extraction of Biochemicals from Biomass1.5 Conclusions and Future ProspectsReferencesChapter 2 Pretreatment Strategies to Enhance Value Addition of Agro-industrial Wastes2.1 Introduction2.2 Residue Characterization2.2.1 Physical State2.2.2 Nature of Carbon Source2.2.3 Nutrient Sources2.2.4 Toxic Compounds2.3 Transport and Storage Considerations2.4 Pretreatment Strategies2.4.1 Drying and Concentration2.4.2 Grinding and Size Classification2.4.3 Thermochemical Hydrolysis2.4.4 Enzymatic Hydrolysis2.5 ConclusionReferencesChapter 3 Thermochemical Transformation of Agrobiomass into Biochar: Simultaneous Carbon Sequestration and Soil Amendment3.1 Introduction3.1.1 What Is Biochar?3.1.2 The Origin of Biochar Management and Research3.1.3 Production of Biochar3.1.4 Biomass Resources for Biochar Production3.2 Biochar Production from Biomass by Thermochemical Conversion Technologies3.2.1 Physical and Thermal Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Biochar3.2.2 Environmental Impact of Biochar Application to Soils3.3.1 Biochar and Climate Change3.4 Conclusions and Future Outlook RequiredReferencesPart II Bioactive Secondary MetabolitesChapter 4 Microbial Pigments4.1 Introduction4.1.2 Current Use of Biopigments4.1.3 Why Microbial Pigments?4.2 Biopigment Production Cases4.2.1 Carotenoids from Yeast and Fungi4.2.2 Carotenoids from Microalgae4.2.3 Other Photosynthetic Pigments from Microalgae4.2.4 Pigments from Fungi4.2.5 Bacterial Pigments: Prodigiosin, Violacein, Pyocyanin, etc.4.3 Biopigment Production and Formulation4.3.1 Production4.3.2 Formulation4.4 Future DevelopmentsReferencesChapter 5 Utilization of Agro-industrial Waste for the Production of Aroma Compounds and Fragrances5.1 Introduction5.2 Types and Few Industrially Important Aroma Compounds5.2.1 Diacetyl3.2.3 As a Valuable Soil Amendment3.3 The Biochar Option to Improve Plant Yields and Crop Productivity5.2.2 2-Phenylethanol5.2.3 Acetoin5.2.4 Vanillin5.3 Possible Application of Agro-Industrial Wastes for Aroma Compound Production5.4 Concluding RemarksReferencesChapter 6 Antioxidants6.1 Introduction6.2 Classification of Antioxidants6.2.1 Natural Antioxidants6.2.2 Synthetic Antioxidants6.3 Sources of Antioxidants6.3.1 Natural Sources6.4 Mechanism of Antioxidant Activity6.5 Techniques for Measurement of Antioxidant Activity6.5.1 Chemical Assays for Antioxidant Activity6.5.2 Biochemical Assays for Antioxidant Activity Assessment6.5.3 Instrumental Technique (Antioxidant Analyzer)6.6 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 7 Solid-State Fermentation of Agricultural Residues for the Production of Antibiotics7.1 Introduction7.2 Antibiotics7.2.1 Secondary Metabolites and Growth7.2.2 Biosynthesis of Microbial Secondary Metabolites7.3 Regulatory Mechanisms Involved in the Biosynthesis of Antibiotics7.3.1 Inducer7.3.2 Autoregulator7.3.3 Carbon Catabolite Repression7.3.4 Nitrogen Regulation7.3.5 Phosphate Regulation7.3.6 Feedback Regulation7.4 Genetic Regulation of Antibiotic Production7.4.1 Gene Clusters7.5 Solid-State Fermentation Production Systems7.5.1 SSF on Natural Support Systems7.5.2 SSF on Inert Support Systems7.6 Optimisation of Fermentation7.6.1 Selection of Supplements7.6.2 Substrate Pretreatment7.6.3 Effect of Moisture Content7.6.4 Effect of Particle Size7.6.5 Effect of pH and Temperature7.6.6 Inoculum Level7.7 Industrial Strain Development7.8 Future ProspectsReferencesChapter 8 Plant Growth Hormones and Other Phytochemicals8.1 Introduction8.2 Auxins8.2.1 Indole-3-Acetic Acid8.2.2 Auxin-Binding Soluble Proteins8.3 Gibberellins8.3.1 Gibberellic Acid8.4 Cytokinins8.5 Abscisic Acid8.5.1 ABA Effects in Plants8.5.2 ABA Production by Microorganisms8.5.3 ABA Analyses8.6 Ethylene8.6.1 Effects of Ethylene in Plants8.6.2 Ethylene Production by Microorganisms8.7 Phytochemicals8.8 ConclusionsReferencesPart III Natural Functional Food ProductsChapter 9 Probiotics9.1 Introduction9.2 Morphology and Physiology of Probiotic Bacteria9.3 Taxonomy of Probiotic Bacteria9.4 Identification of Probiotic Bacteria9.5 Criteria for Selection of Probiotic Bacteria9.5.1 Safety of Probiotic Bacteria9.5.2 Technological Properties of Probiotic Bacteria9.5.3 Enhancing Stress Resistance of Probiotic Bacteria9.6 Mechanisms of Probiotic Bacteria Positive Action9.6.1 Increasing the Production of Intestinal Mucins and Antimicrobial Substances9.6.2 Competitive Exclusion of Pathogenic Bacteria Through Probiotics Adhesion to Mucus, Epithelial Cells, Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Plasma Components9.6.3 Protection and Restoring of Epithelial Integrity9.6.4 Modulation of Host Immune Functions9.6.5 Influence on Host Microbiota and Pathogenic Bacteria9.7 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (scCO2) for the Extraction of Polar Lipids from Probiotic Bacteria9.8 Brewing Waste as Media for Growth of Probiotic Bacteria9.9 ConclusionReferencesChapter 10 Prebiotics10.1 Introduction10.2 Production of Prebiotics10.3 Galacto-oligosaccharides10.3.1 Method of Production10.4 Lactulose10.4.1 Method of Production10.5 Lactosucrose10.5.1 Method of Production10.6 Fructo-oligosaccharides10.6.1 Method of Production10.7 Inulin10.7.1 Method of Production10.8 Malto-oligosaccharides10.8.1 Method of Production10.9 Xylo-oligosaccharides10.9.1 Method of Production10.10 Applications of Prebiotics10.10.1 Functional Foods10.10.2 Gastroenterological Effects10.10.3 Regulation of Lipid Metabolism10.10.4 Absorption of Minerals10.10.5 Cancer Prevention10.10.6 Immunity Enhancement10.11 Market Demand of Prebiotics10.12 SummaryReferencesChapter 11 Potential of Agro-residues as Sources of Bioactive Compounds11.1 Introduction11.2 Toxicity of Synthetic Antioxidants11.3 Free Radicals11.3.1 Production of Free Radicals11.4 Antioxidants11.4.1 Scavenging Effects of Bioactive Compounds on Free Radicals11.4.2 Mode of Action of Antioxidant11.4.3 Methods for Measuring Antioxidant Activity11.5 Bioactive Compounds as Important Antioxidants11.5.1 Phytochemicals11.6 Agro-Processing Wastes as an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds11.6.1 Lignocellulosic Waste11.6.2 Fruit Residues11.6.3 Vegetable Residues11.7 Extraction of Bioactive Compounds11.7.1 Liquid–Liquid Extraction11.7.2 Solid-Phase Extraction11.7.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction11.7.4 Pressurized Liquid Extraction11.7.5 Microwave-Assisted Extraction11.7.6 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction11.7.7 Enzymatic Extraction of Bioactive Compounds11.7.8 Other Extraction Methods11.8 Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds11.8.1 Therapeutic Activities of Bioactive Compounds11.9 ConclusionsReferencesPart IV Pharmaceutical and Personal Care ProductsChapter 12 Biologically Active Compounds Form Seafood Processing By-Products12.1 Introduction12.2 Classical Way of Treating Seafood Waste12.3 Chitin and Chitosan from Seafood Waste12.4 Hydrolysed Fish Proteins12.4.1 Bioactivities of Fish Protein Hydrolysates12.5 Biologically Active Peptides12.6 Collagen and Gelatin from Fish Waste12.7 Fish Bones as a Mineral Source12.8 Omega-3 Fatty Acids12.9 Other Constituents12.10 Concluding RemarksReferencesChapter 13 Microbial Statins13.1 Introduction13.2 Hyperlipidemia and the Processes Leading to Atherosclerosis13.2.1 Definitions13.2.2 Causes of Hyperlipidemia and Its Association with Atherosclerotic Processes13.3 The Statin-Based Therapeutic Strategies13.3.1 General Characteristics of Statins13.3.2 Chemical Structure and Mode of Action: Statins13.3.3 Other Relevant Effects of Statins13.3.4 Current Market Situation of Statins: The Billion Dollar Drugs13.4 Microbial Statins: Production Process and Potential for New Substances13.4.1 Lovastatin13.4.2 Pravastatin13.5 Perspectives of the Non-statin Hypolipidemic Agents13.5.1 Niacin13.5.2 Ezetimibe13.5.3 Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Inhibitors13.5.4 Fibrates13.6 PerspectivesReferencesChapter 14 Exploring Plant and Agro-industrial Wastes for Antimicrobial Biochemicals14.1 Introduction14.2 Antimicrobial Chemistry14.2.1 Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis14.2.2 Cell Wall and Cell Membrane Interference14.2.3 Inhibition of Protein Synthesis14.2.4 Inhibition of Metabolic Pathway14.3 Biochemistry of Antibiotic Resistance14.3.1 Inactivation of Antimicrobial Agent14.3.2 Alteration of the Target14.3.3 Efflux Pumps and Reduced Outer Membrane Permeability14.3.4 Acquired Resistance14.4 Common Antimicrobial Compounds from Plant and Agrowaste14.4.1 Flavonoids14.4.2 Essential Oils14.4.3 Coumarins14.4.4 Quinones14.4.5 Tannins14.4.6 Alkaloids14.4.7 Peptides14.4.8 Lignan14.4.9 Xanthones14.4.10 Iridoids14.5 Antimicrobial Compounds from Plant and Agrowaste14.5.1 Antimicrobial Compounds from Fruit Waste14.5.2 Antimicrobial Compounds from Plant Wastes14.5.3 Antimicrobial Potential of Agro-Industrial Wastes14.5.4 Utilization of Agrowaste as Substrate14.6 Recent Advances14.7 ConclusionReferencesChapter 15 Pharmaceutical Enzymes15.1 Introduction15.2 Structure of Enzyme15.3 Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes15.4 Biopharmaceutical Enzymes15.5 Application of Enzymes as Pharmaceuticals15.5.1 Galsulfase15.5.2 Asparaginase15.5.3 Dornase Alfa15.5.4 Agalsidase15.5.5 Therapeutic Protein Inhibitors of Elastase15.5.6 Pancrelipase15.5.7 Imiglucerase15.5.8 Pegademase Bovine15.5.9 Tissue Plasminogen Activators15.5.10 Urokinase15.5.11 Streptokinase15.5.12 Bromelain15.5.13 Hyaluronidase15.5.14 Rasburicase15.6 Application of Immobilized Enzymes as Pharmaceutical15.7 Production of Biopharmaceuticals at Industrial Scale15.8 Future Prospects15.9 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 16 Biocosmetics16.1 Introduction16.1.1 Definition16.2 Products from the Earth16.2.1 Antioxidants from Agricultural Wastes16.2.2 Ferulic Acid16.2.3 Resveratrol16.2.4 Lycopene16.2.5 Olive Mill Wastes16.2.6 Wastes from the Textile Industry16.3 Products from the Sea16.3.1 Collagen16.3.2 Compounds from Shrimps16.3.3 Polyunsaturated ω-Fatty Acids (PUFA)16.4 Biotechnological Products16.4.1 Antimicrobial and Preservative16.4.2 Polysaccharides16.4.3 Biosurfactants16.4.4 Retinoids16.5 Future ProspectsReferencesPart V Other BiochemicalsChapter 17 Biopolymers Synthesis and Application17.1 Introduction17.2 Sources of Polymers17.2.1 Natural Polymers17.2.2 Synthetic Polymers17.2.3 Bioartificial or Biosynthetic Polymers17.3 Synthesis of Polymers with Biological Functionality17.3.1 Bioplastics17.3.2 Microbial Polysaccharides17.4 Valorization of Biomass to Produce Biopolymers17.4.1 Valorization of Biomass to Produce Bioplastics17.4.2 Valorization of Biomass to Produce Polysaccharides17.5 Bacterial Polymer Biosynthesis Pathways17.5.1 Bacterial Bioplastic Synthesis17.5.2 Bacterial Polysaccharide Biosynthesis17.6 Applications of Polymers17.6.1 Medical Application17.6.2 Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Applications17.6.3 Packaging17.6.4 Environmental Applications17.7 Conclusions, Outlook, and PerspectivesReferencesChapter 18 Exploitation of Agro-Industrial Wastes to Produce Low-Cost Microbial Surfactants18.1 Introduction18.2 Biosurfactants: Microbial Origin18.2.1 Classification and Chemical Composition18.3 Comparative Account of Biosafety and Surface-Active Properties of Biosurfactants and Synthetic Surfactants18.3.1 Biodegradability and Toxicity18.3.2 Surface Activity18.4 Substrates for Biosurfactants Production18.4.1 Conventional Substrates for Microbial Surfactants Production18.4.2 Low-Cost Substrates: Cheap and Value-Added Alternatives18.5 Process Optimization18.5.1 Optimization of Medium and Physicochemical Conditions18.5.2 Bioreactor Designing18.5.3 Downstream Processing18.6 ConclusionReferencesChapter 19 C3–C4 Platform Chemicals Bioproduction Using Biomass19.1 Introduction19.2 Platform Chemicals and Their Applications in Industry19.3 Production of C3 Chemicals19.3.1 Carboxylic Acid: Propionic Acid19.3.2 Hydroxy Acids: Lactic and 3-Hydroxypropionic Acids19.3.3 Alcohols: 1-Propanol and Isopropanol19.4 Bioproduction of C4 Chemicals19.4.1 Carboxylic Acid: Butyric Acid19.4.2 Dicarboxylic Acids: Succinic, Malic, and Fumaric Acids19.4.3 Butanol and Isobutanol19.5 ConclusionsReferences
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