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Finance for Food - Doris Kohn

Year 2014


PART I: The Big Picture: Global Trends Affecting Agricultural FinanceCHAPTER 1 Global Dynamics in Agricultural and Rural Economy, and Its Effects on Rural Finance1 What's New in Agricultural and Rural Environment?1.1 Mega-Trends Impacting the Rural Economy1.2 Mega-Trends Impacting the Agricultural Economy1.3 Mega-Trend Impacting Both Agricultural and Rural Economy2 Emerging Models in Agricultural and Rural Finance2.1 Definitions and Lessons from the Old Agricultural Finance2.2 Modern Rural Finance: An Emerging Model Drawing from Microfinance Best Practices2.3 Value Chain Financing, Borrowing from Private Sector Financial Services to Small and Medium Farmers3 Potential Impact of New Agricultural and Rural Finance and Role of Major Stakeholders3.1 Potential Impact at Micro, Meso and Macro Levels3.2 Roles of Governments (Central and Local), Donors and Private Players in Supporting the New Agricultural and Rural Finance3.3 Role for DonorsReferencesPublications on Value Chain FinancingCHAPTER 2 Food Security and a Holistic Finance for Rural Markets1 Commercialisation of Farming as an Opportunity2 The Cross-Cutting Relevance of Transport Infrastructure2.1 Food Which Is Never Produced2.2 Post-harvest Losses as a Critical Factor for Food Security2.3 Post-harvest Losses as a Factor for Farm Income2.4 Efficiently Organised Value Chains Can Reduce Post-Harvest Losses3 The (Potential) Contribution of the Financial Sector4 ConclusionReferencesPART II: Institutional and Process Innovations in Serving Rural ClientsCHAPTER 3 Finance Through Food and Commodity Value Chains in a Globalized Economy1 Introduction2 Increased Importance of Value Chains3 Organization and Structure of Value Chains3.1 Increasing Public and Private Standards3.2 Increasing Consolidation in Processing and Retail3.3 Vertical Coordination and Value Chain Finance4 Small Farmer Participation in Value Chains4.1 Small Farmer Inclusion and Governance5 Value Chain Finance 6 Models of Private Sector VCF6.1 Trade Credit6.2 Interlinked Contract-Farming6.3 Loan Guarantee Programs6.4 Special Purpose Vehicles6.5 Warehouse Receipt Finance 7 Importance of VCF8 Impact of VCF on Productivity, Quality and Output9 Policy IssuesReferencesCHAPTER 4 Agricultural Growth Corridors – Unlocking Rural Potential, Catalyzing Economic Development1 Global Challenges2 African Agriculture2.1 African Challenges2.2 Political Support2.3 African Green Revolution2.4 African Potential3 Value Chains4 Growth Corridors4.1 Corridor Clusters4.2 Corridors Established5 The BAGC6 The SAGCOT6.1 Capital Requirements6.2 Agro-Industries6.3 Regional Integration7 Infrastructure Backbone8 Investment OpportunityGrow Africa9 ConclusionReferencesCHAPTER 5 Innovative Microfinance: Potential for Serving Rural Markets Sustainably1 Agricultural and Rural Microfinance1.1 Definitions1.2 The Subsidized Agricultural Credit Paradigm1.3 The Financial Systems Approach2 Microfinance Serving Agriculture and Rural Areas2.1 Reasons for MFIs Expanding into Rural Areas2.2 Required Adjustments in Methodology: Becoming Client Oriented2.3 Successful MFIs Rerving Rural Areas and Agriculture3 Member-Owned MFIs in Agricultural and Rural Finance3.1 Four Cooperative Networks3.2 Strengthening Rural Financial Cooperatives4 The Role of Donors and DFIs in Overcoming Barriers4.1 Political Interventions and Interest Rate Ceilings4.2 Subsidize Institutions and Public Goods4.3 Supporting Networks4.4 Risk Mitigation4.5 Measure and EvaluateReferencesCHAPTER 6 Busting Agro-Lending Myths and Back to Banking Basics: A Case Study of AccessBank's Agricultural Lending1 Greenfield Small Business Bank in a Transitional Economy2 Lack of Agricultural Finance3 Typical Reservations Against Lending to Farmers4 Launch of Agro Loan Product5 Results After Introducing the Dedicated Agro Loan Product6 Agro Loan Product Drives Regional Bank Expansion and Access to Financial Services7 Agro Loans Providing Stability During Crisis8 Busting Agro-Myths9 Risk Management Approach10 ConclusionReferencesPART III: Dealing with Risks in Agricultural FinanceCHAPTER 7 Where Is the Risk? Is Agricultural Banking Really More Difficult than Other Sectors?1 Introduction2 Risks in Agricultural Finance2.1 Definitions and Classifications of Risks2.2 Principal Credit Risks2.3 Specific Risks in Agriculture2.4 Political Risks2.5 Empirical Evidence on Actual Risks3 Approaches to Risk Management in Agricultural Finance3.1 Managing Principal Credit Risks3.2 Approaches to Manage the Specific Risks in Agriculture3.3 Political Risks Remain a Challenge4 Implications and Perspectives for Agricultural Finance4.1 Towards a Hybrid Model of Agricultural Microfinance4.2 Innovative Insurance Instruments Need Further Study and Development4.3 Diversification to Remain a Core Element of Risk Management4.4 Improvements in Legal Framework and Financial Infrastructure4.5 The Role of Government and Donors5 Concluding RemarksAppendix 1: Segmentation of Agricultural RisksAppendix 2: Features of a Hybrid Model of Agricultural MicrofinanceReferencesCHAPTER 8 The Potential of Structured Finance to Foster Agricultural Lending in Developing Countries1 Introduction2 Concept of Structured Finance3 Risk-Based Differentiation Between Agricultural and Rural Finance3.1 Investors' Channels to Finance Agriculture3.2 Agricultural Value Chain Finance4 Agricultural Risks and Risk Management Strategies4.1 Classification of Agricultural Risks4.2 Risk Management Strategies and the Role of Structured Finance5 Application of Structured Finance in Agricultural Lending5.1 Agricultural Portfolio Guarantees5.2 Are Agricultural Portfolio Guarantees an Appropriate Tool?5.3 How Innovative Agriculture-Specific Guarantees Could Look5.4 (No) Securitization in Agricultural Finance5.5 Structured Funds Investing in Rural Finance6 Finance Structures in Value Chain Finance6.1 Receivables-Backed Finance6.2 Warehouse Receipts Finance6.3 Forward Contracts, Futures and Options6.4 Contract Farming7 Summary8 Concluding RemarksReferencesWebsitesCHAPTER 9 New Approaches to Agricultural Insurance in Developing Economies1 Ex-ante Versus Ex-post Risk Management Solutions2 First Considerations When Setting Up Agricultural Insurance: System Approach Before Product Approach3 SystemAgro: Framework and Structural Aspects of Agricultural Insurance Systems4 Operational Aspects of Agricultural Insurance Systems5 Insurance Products and the Overestimated Potential of Weather Trigger Policies6 Portfolio Management and Underwriting7 Distribution8 Loss Management and Loss Adjustment9 Administration and Data Management10 Innovation: The Driving Force in All Development Phases11 Current Status and OutlookExchange RatesReferencesPART IV: Using Modern Technology for High-Quality Services in Rural AreasCHAPTER 10 Reaching the Client in Geographically Adverse Conditions: Can Outsourcing Increase Effectiveness and Efficiency?1 Introduction2 Providing Financial Services to Remote Rural Areas: Specific Constraints and Costs2.1 What Are the Constraints Faced in Remote Rural Areas?2.2 What Is the Impact of Rural Finance on Cost Structures?3 Increasing Outreach Through Branchless Banking3.1 Branchless Banking: Banks' Internal Solutions3.2 Branchless Banking: How ICT Boosted Outsourcing Possibilities3.3 Branchless Banking: Different Types of Partnerships3.4 Setting Up a Bank-Led Mobile Banking System4 Conclusions4.1 Implications of Outsourcing on a Bank's Operations4.2 When Should a Bank Contemplate Launching a Mobile Banking System?4.3 The Role of Government and DonorsReferencesCHAPTER 11 Tameer Bank's Experiences with Mobile Banking1 Access to Finance: The Case of Pakistan2 Mobile Penetration: Anywhere and Everywhere3 Mobile Banking: Differentiated and Low Cost4 Tameer-Telenor Partnership5 EasyPaisa: Story So Far and Way AheadReferencesCHAPTER 12 Poverty-Sensitive Scorecards to Prioritize Lending and Grant Allocation with an Application in Central America1 Introduction2 Building a Scorecard2.1 Risk Scorecard2.2 Poverty Scorecard3 An Application to a Grant Competition in Central America3.1 Details of the Program in Central America3.2 Risk Scoring3.3 Poverty Scoring4 Concluding RemarksReferences
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