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4.3 The Development Flow

Remote-Control Car Assembled

Remote-control car companies in the market do not release any Software Development Kit (SDK). The toy company only releases a control app to allow user to use. In order to have much flexibility and programmability, we choose Arduino finally. Arduino is a single-board microcontroller designed to make the process of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible. User can connect the board with many different devices, such as Light-Emitting Diode (LED), temperature sensor, speaker, servo motor, infrared sensor, Bluetooth chip, Ethernet, XBee, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Global Positioning System (GPS), and so on. Arduino is great development tool intended for everybody who wants to easily and quickly create his own application. For example it could be a blinking LED or a system to control home appliances via Wireless network.

The following are brief assembly steps:

1. Assemble Arduino Uno board and Arduino Shield board.

2. The servomotors connect with corresponding pins on Arduino Shield board.

3. Assemble car and Arduino boards.

4. Add battery power supply.

5. Connect Bluetooth module with corresponding pins on Arduino Shield board.

After assembling the car, then write an Arduino blink program. We write a control servo code in setup function and loop function. After finishing remote-control car assembly in Fig. 4, we start to implement connection function in mobile device and remotecontrol car. After remote-control car modification in Fig. 5, the "Cars" outfit is virtual.

Fig. 4. Remote-control car

Fig. 5. After remote-control car modification

Mobile Device and Remote-Control Car

There are many different ways to implement connection function, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, infrared, RFID, and so on. Because the Bluetooth has been widely utilized in mobile device, we choose it as our connection module.

Bluetooth connections comprise mobile device and Arduino car.

Implement connection function in mobile device.

1. Mobile device scans the Bluetooth device and connects with it.

2. Send control signals to Arduino car.

Implement connection function in Arduino car.

1. Add a function control to the Arduino car consisting of forward, backward, left turn, right turn, and stop.

2. Receive signals from mobile device and trigger the corresponding event.

Augmented Reality Interaction Design

Use Unity 3D and Qualcomm Vuforia SDK to develop the application. The game aims to construct traffic signals for education. We design some tags to be recognized.With Image Recognition AR, user holds camera over tags, and event happens in a virtual environment. The following are brief development steps:

1. Launch the Unity and load Vuforia kit.

2. Use the material dragged into the Unity project library.

3. Identify tag loading Unity.

4. Set up a virtual button on the scene.

5. Combine the connection function in Unity.

The Car Tracked via a Marker

After remote-control car modification in Fig. 5, we use the car's pattern as marker by Vuforia kit. When mobile device's camera recognizes target, we can get the car's position. Via a car's position, we can calculate distance between a car in real world and the object in virtual world or collision detection.

Game Mechanism and Interface

The game mechanism created from Augmented Reality integrates real and virtual features. There are three scenarios in our game mechanism that contains shooting game, roadblock hindrance, and traffic signal game.

Shooting game

Shooting game scenario uses a tag on remote-control car and sets a corresponding 3D model. This scenario's system process diagram uses Mode 2 in Fig. 2. When mobile device's camera recognizes target, the weapon will appear at the top of the car in Fig. 6. It is similar to the movie “Transformers” that cars can transform into the other type. We design some virtual enemies in the game and player can control the car and shoot to be a winner.

Roadblock hindrance

This scenario's system process diagram uses Mode 1 in Fig. 1. The game scenario to identify tags is roadblock hindrance in Fig. 7. When a user drives and crashes into roadblocks, a car will stop forward in Fig. 8. In this scenario, we realize the virtual objects to interact with physical objects.

Traffic signal game

This scenario's system process diagram uses Mode 1 in Fig. 1. The screen of game playing is shown in Fig. 9. There are five buttons consisting of “forward”, “left”, “right”, “back”, and “stop” on the screen. User can control car via those buttons and the virtual objects shown on the screen. The use of a set of virtual buttons in the program allows the game to generate feedback on the car's behavior. We design a game situation when the user drives through a green light then the pass has been shown on the screen in Fig. 10. On the other hand, when the user drives through a red light, then the warning has been shown on the screen in Fig. 11. By this way, user will learn the traffic rules.

Fig. 6. The weapon will appear at the top of the car

Fig. 7. A roadblock hindrance on the screen

Fig. 8. Drive and crash into roadblocks

Fig. 9. The green traffic light is safe to pass

Fig. 10. The green traffic light is safe to pass

Fig. 11. Passing through the red traffic light causes warning

 
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