Menu
Home
Log in / Register
 
Home arrow Computer Science arrow Understanding Network Hacks
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >

Chapter 6 WHOIS DNS?

Abstract DNS or Domain Name System is like the telephone book of the internet or intranet. It resolves IP addresses that are hard to remember to names like ccc.de or springer.com and vice versa. Forward name resolution to IP are realized by A records and reverse lookups via PTR records. Furthermore DNS is also used to find out the mail server of a domain with the help of MX records and the responsible nameserver via NS records. CNAME records can be used to declare aliases for hostnames. Last but not least DNS can also be used as a poor mans load balancer by implementing a round robin procedure.

DNS offers a simple and silent variant of the man-in-the-middle attack. Thus most of the time you only have to spoof a single DNS response packet to hijack all packets of a connection. Most computers nowadays use a DNS caching mechanism to save the resolved hostnames and only send a new request if the old IP is no longer reachable.

Names of computers are usually far more than just a nice sticker, though they contain information about their usage and sometimes even details about the network or location. A computer named rtr3.ffm.domain.net for example is one of at least 3 routers in the city Frankfurt am Main.

6.1 Protocol Overview

Figure 6.1 shows a typical DNS header.

The ID field, as the name implies, includes a unique identification number for letting the client know to which request a response belongs. The QR option tells us if the packet is a query (bit is set to zero) or a response (bit is 1). The OP code defines the type of request. Zero stands for forward and one for reverse lookup. Responses instead use the RCODE field to mark a response as successful by setting the bit to zero, one stands for a failed request and 2 for server error.

The AA bit tells us if the response was authorized (1) thus the server itself is responsible for the requested domain or if it has forwarded our request to another server. The TZ bit shows if a response was truncated, because it was longer than 512 byte.

Fig. 6.1 DNS-Header

You cannot only request information of a DNS server about a single host or IP, but also about a whole domain (see Sect. 6.3). That is performed with recursion and a set RD bit (Recursion desired). If you get an answer with RA bit set to zero than recursion is not available to you on the requested server.

6.2 Required Modules

Install Scapy if it is not installed yet by invoking the following command.

pip install Scapy

 
Found a mistake? Please highlight the word and press Shift + Enter  
< Prev   CONTENTS   Next >
 
Subjects
Accounting
Business & Finance
Communication
Computer Science
Economics
Education
Engineering
Environment
Geography
Health
History
Language & Literature
Law
Management
Marketing
Philosophy
Political science
Psychology
Religion
Sociology
Travel