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4 Middleware Implementation

The Visible Breadboard Device has several features for interaction with users. The following sections describe basic wiring and visualization, checking the connection function, UNDO/REDO, and digital color mode.

4.1 Basic Wiring and Visualization

Users can control the Visible Breadboard Device by touching the pads on the surface. This section describes the connection algorithm. If users touch one hole (Fig. 8 (left).1) and then another next to it (Fig. 8 (left).2), these two holes are connected or cut (Fig. 8 (left).3). If a hole is connected to others, the LED for the voltage visualization (placed below the sensor board) turns on. For example, users can make the circuit shown in Fig. 8 (right).

Example 1: Fig. 8 (right-up) is a circuit with resistors, an LED, and a capacitor. The RED light shows that the voltage is Vcc (5 V) and the BLUE light shows that the voltage is GND (0 V). In Fig. 10, LED (A) is on because there is an electric current in the circuit.

Example 2: Fig. 8 (right-bottom) is a circuit with resistors only. The RED light shows that the voltage is GND (0 V) and the BLUE light shows that the voltage is Vcc (5 V). In Fig. 11, the holes on each side of interval (A) have different colors because there is no connection (left hole shows GND and right hole shows Vcc).

Fig. 8. (left) Connection Algorithm (right-up) Example 1: RED is V+, BLUE is GND (rightbottom) Example 2: RED is GND, BLUE is V+

4.2 Checking the Connection Function

The Visible Breadboard Device has an indicator for voltage visualization but there is no indicator for the connection of the holes. To compensate for this, the Visible Breadboard Device has a checking the connection function. When users press the button on the right side of the sensor board, the voltage visualization LEDs blink in sequence to show the connection of each hole.


The Visible Breadboard Device has a wiring UNDO and REDO function. Using this, users can erase and remake a connection easily. Furthermore, if the users push the UNDO and REDO button repeatedly, the wiring in the circuit repeats the cutting and connecting rapidly. Users can make a high-speed voltage change. This is useful to view the waves on the breadboard.

Additionally, if the users push the REDO button slowly, they can see, slowly and in order, what happens in the circuit when the connection is made.

4.4 Digital Color Mode

The Visible Breadboard Device has two visualization modes. The first is a basic visualization using gradation of the LED color, like thermography. The second is a digital color mode. In this mode, the LED shows a different color for every 1V step. It is helpful for checking and understanding what happens in the digital circuit.

4.5 Other Features

The Visible Breadboard Device has some other features: Sound, Auto Save, and Color palette for the voltage. The Sound system gives users visual and sound feedback. The Auto Save system enables users to emulate an ordinary solderless breadboard. With an ordinary solderless breadboard, the circuit remains connected without electricity. With the Visible Breadboard, the circuit that users develop disappears if the power is turned off. The Auto Save features compensates for this shortcoming. With Color palette for the voltage, users can set their preferred color configuration.

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