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Radiation Monitoring and Dose Estimation of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident - Sentaro Takahashi

Year 2014


Part I IntroductionChapter 1 Outline of the Environmental Monitoring of Tepco's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident1.1 Introduction1.2 Exposure Pathways1.3 Environmental Monitoring1.4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 2 Outline of the Radiation Dose Estimation of Residents After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident2.1 Introduction2.2 External Dose Estimation2.3 Internal Dose Estimation2.4 ConclusionReferencesPart II OverviewChapter 3 Accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Sequences, Fission Products Released, Lessons Learned3.1 Introduction3.2 Basic Information3.3 Accident Sequences3.3.1 Before the Tsunami Attack3.3.2 After the Tsunami Attack3.3.3 Accident Sequence of Unit 13.3.4 Accident Sequence of Unit 23.3.5 Accident Sequence of Unit 33.3.6 Spent Fuel Pools3.4 Release of Fission Products3.5 Lessons Learned3.6 SummaryReferencesChapter 4 Some Comments on Dose Assessment for Members of the Public After the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident4.1 Introduction4.2 Implication of Dose Assessment4.3 Radiological Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident4.3.1 Environmental Monitoring4.3.2 Dose Assessment4.3.3 Examples of Dose Assessments in Fukushima Prefecture4.3.4 Some Points Found in the Dose Assessments4.4 Effects of Radiation Exposure of Children4.4.1 Radiation Dose of Children4.4.2 Radiosensitivity of Children4.4.3 Effective Dose Adjusted by Age Weighting Factor for Radiation Protection4.5 DiscussionReferencesPart III Radiation Survey of the EnvironmentChapter 5 Environmental Radiation Status In and Around Tokyo Immediately After the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster5.1 Introduction5.2 Monitoring Activity and Data of Local Governments5.2.1 External Exposure5.2.2 Internal Exposure5.3 Monitoring Activity and Data of the University of Tokyo5.3.1 Targets and Methods5.3.2 Data and Information5.4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 6 Radiation Survey Along Two Trails in Mt. Fuji to Investigate the Radioactive Contamination Caused by TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident6.1 Introduction6.2 Measurements6.3 Results and Discussions6.4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 7 Development of a Carborne Survey System, KURAMA7.1 Introduction7.2 KURAMA7.3 KURAMA-II7.4 Current Status and Future ProspectsReferencesChapter 8 Radiation Measurement in East Japan in 2011 After the Fukushima Nuclear Accident8.1 Introduction8.2 Materials and Methods8.3 Results and Discussion8.3.1 Calibration8.3.2 Air Dose Rate8.3.3 Surface Contamination8.3.4 Radiation Exposure8.4 ConclusionReferencesPart IV Environmental RadioactivityChapter 9 Distribution of Plutonium Isotopes in Marine Sediments off Japan Before and After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: A Review9.1 Introduction9.2 Distribution of Pu Isotopes in the Marine Sediments off Japan Before the Accident9.3 Distribution of Pu Isotopes in the Marine Sediments off Japan After the Accident9.3.1 Distribution of Pu Activities and Pu Inventories9.3.2 Pu Atom Ratios9.4 Sources of Pu Isotopes in Marine Sediments in the Western North Pacific off Japan9.4.1 Influence of the FDNPP Accident on Pu Distribution9.4.2 Resolving Global Fallout and PPG Close-In Fallout Pu9.5 Perspectives for Future StudyReferencesChapter 10 Time Trend Change of Air Dose Rate on Paved Areas in Fukushima City After the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident10.1 Introduction10.2 Methods10.2.1 Measurement of the Radioactivity in Surface Soils10.2.2 Dose Rate Distribution Survey10.3 Results10.3.1 Measurement of the Radioactivity in Surface Soils10.3.2 Dose Rate Distribution Survey10.4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 11 Observation of Radionuclides in Marine Biota off the Coast of Fukushima Prefecture After TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident11.1 Introduction11.2 Materials and Methods11.3 Results and Discussion11.4 ConclusionReferencesPart V Transfer Models and/or ParametersChapter 12 Evaluating Removal of Radionuclides from Landfill Leachate Using Generally Practiced Wastewater Treatment Processes12.1 Introduction12.2 Materials and Methods12.2.1 Sample Collection12.2.2 Determination of Characteristics of Samples12.2.3 Determination of Physical and Chemical Forms of the Target Elements in Raw Leachate12.3 Results and Discussion12.3.1 Characteristics of the Samples12.3.2 Element Fractionation in the Raw Leachate Sample12.3.3 Element Concentration in Samples at Each Treatment Step12.4 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 13 Studies on Radiocesium Transfer in Agricultural Plants in Fukushima Prefecture13.1 Objective13.2 Effect of Potassium Application on Root Uptake of Radiocesium in Rice13.3 Phytoremediation of Radiocesium in Different Soils Using Cultivated PlantsReferencesPart VI Source EstimationChapter 14 Investigation of Uncertainty in the Release Rates of 131I and 137Cs from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Estimated from Environmental Data14.1 Introduction14.2 Methods14.2.1 Release Rate Estimation14.2.2 Atmospheric Dispersion Model14.2.3 Environmental Monitoring Data14.2.4 Calculation Condition14.3 Results and Discussion14.3.1 Simplified Meteorological Condition14.3.2 Actual Meteorological Condition14.4 ConclusionReferencesChapter 15 Source Term Estimation of 131I and 137Cs Discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the Atmosphere15.1 Introduction15.2 Method15.2.1 Reverse Estimation Method15.2.2 Environmental Monitoring Data15.2.3 Atmospheric Dispersion Simulation15.2.4 Reconstruction of Local Atmospheric Dispersion Process15.2.5 Radionuclides15.3 Results and Discussion15.3.1 Preliminary Source Term Estimation15.3.2 Detailed Analysis on the Local Atmospheric Dispersion Process15.3.3 Reestimation of Source Term for the Early Phase of the Accident15.3.4 Validation of Source Term by the Regional-Scale Atmospheric Dispersion Simulation15.3.5 Formation Processes of 137Cs Deposition over Eastern Japan15.4 ConclusionsReferencesPart VII Dose AssessmentChapter 16 NIRS's Project for the Reconstruction of Early Internal Dose to Inhabitants in Fukushima After the Nuclear Disaster16.1 Introduction16.2 Measurement Data Collection16.2.1 Human Thyroid Measurements16.2.2 Human Whole-Body (WB) Measurements16.2.3 Environmental Measurements16.3 Proposed Methods16.4 Discussion and Future TasksReferencesChapter 17 Internal Radiation Dose of KURRI Volunteers Working at Evacuation Shelters After TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident17.1 Background17.2 Methods17.3 Results17.3.1 Initial Measurement of External Radiation and Internal Radiation Doses of Volunteers17.3.2 Follow-Up Data of Internal Doses for Two Volunteers17.4 DiscussionReferencesChapter 18 Probabilistic Assessment of Doses to the Public Living in Areas Contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident18.1 Introduction18.2 Method18.2.1 Scope18.2.2 Probabilistic Techniques in Radiation Dose Assessment18.2.3 Models for Assessing Doses from External and Internal Exposures18.2.4 Input Monitoring Data of the Surface Activity Density of 137Cs18.3 Results and Discussion18.3.1 Estimated Effective Doses18.3.2 Contributions of Different Exposure Pathways18.4 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 19 Reduction of External Exposure for Residents from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident by Weathering and Decontamination19.1 Introduction19.2 Methods19.3 Results and Discussion19.3.1 Air Dose Rates19.3.2 Personal Dose Equivalent for ResidentsReferences
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