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3 Enhancing Motivation in Different Localized Spaces of Collective Innovation

3.1 Methods and Techniques to Channel Collective Creativity (ProviderDriven Activities)

Innovation through collective participation is facilitated by the use of methodologies that guide participants' creativity to reach innovative solutions to current problems. There are a multiple methods, techniques and approaches that have been developed by academics and practitioners to ignite and channel the participants' creativity and imagination like TRIZ, C-K, Creative problem solving (CPS) or design thinking.

Co-creation activities following a given method can take place in virtual or localized environments. Localized spaces offer the advantage of facilitating the sharing of tacit knowledge and face-to-face interaction. They also allow the use of physical objects and the construction of prototypes that support the creation process (T. Brown, 2008). Consequently, Design Thinking and other similar innovation methodologies will benefit from taking place in spaces optimized for the construction of prototypes and models (Kelley, 2001), like Fab Labs.

The Fab Lab concept originated in MIT's interdisciplinary Center for Bits and Atoms where a first lab was put in place empowering students to make (almost) anything (Gershenfeld, 2005) by the use of new technological tools for rapid prototyping like 3D printers, laser cutters, and programmable sewing machines that allow small-scale production. They serve a wide spectrum of users, from youth, inventors as well as companies and students. They also serve multiple uses like teaching, professional development, applied research and research services.

3.2 Social Innovation Focus (Enabler-Driven Activities)

Social innovation can be defined as “innovative activities and services that are motivated by the goal of meeting a social need and that are predominantly developed and diffused through organizations whose primary purposes are social.” (Mulgan, Tucker, Ali, & Sanders, 2007). Thus social innovation is differentiated from traditional business innovation as the latter is characterized by the profit maximization and the commercial exploitation of innovative endeavors. Between these two extremes, there is a large gray zone that includes other types of innovation that have both an economic and social goal, for instance, like innovation in social entrepreneurship.

The mere social collective benefit of the resulting social innovation is not sufficient to engage participation. The successful evolution of a social innovation, as in the case of any type of innovation, requires convincing new followers to adopt it. In the case of social innovation, the main types of resistance to people's participation are related to the short/term efficiency loss, the fear of risks and the loss of the current status quo, the resistance to change and the strong social ties (Mulgan et al., 2007). Consequently, to motivate participation, the promoter has to convince of the long-term benefits of participation, compared to a potential efficiency decrease and resistance to change in the short-term.

Changing mentalities, routines and practices is one of the biggest challenges of social innovators. Thus, participants in social innovation activities will be more inclined to contribute if they are already sensitive to social issues and share the values of social innovation. Local impact might also facilitate the participation of citizens. Short-term positive results can motivate and engage a larger local community, however, the lack of visible results or not implementing the results of the collaborative efforts might result in participants' deception and demotivation.

Grassroots emerging spaces, like coworking spaces focused on social innovation are deeply embedded in the local social environment and represent platforms for participation in social innovation for the local community.

Coworking spaces with a social innovation focus are not only platforms of interaction and collaboration among social innovators and entrepreneurs but also attract individuals interested in collaborating in social innovation initiatives.

The social entrepreneurs and innovators in coworking spaces tend to dedicate their efforts in the benefit of the local community. Communities that emerge in such spaces are in general self-managed, autonomous, and do not depend on public funds. This aspect allows the community to be deeply embedded in the local community and attract the participation of neighbors. However, despite the social goal of social entrepreneurs, their for-profit focus can refrain them from getting involved in pure social innovation.

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