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Microprocessor Architecture of Embedded Systems

The microprocessor is the core in embedded systems. By installing a microprocessor into a special circuit board and adding the necessary peripheral circuits and expansion circuits, a practical embedded system can be created. The microprocessor architecture

determines the instructions, supporting peripheral circuits, and expansion circuits. There are a wide range of microprocessors: 4-, 8-, 16-, 32-, and 64-bit, with performance from MHz to GHz, and ranging from a few pins to thousands of pins.

In general, there are two types of embedded microprocessor architecture: reduced

instruction set computer (RISC) and complex instruction set computer (CISC). The RISC processor uses a small, limited, simple instruction set. Each instruction uses a standard word length and has a short execution time, which facilitates the optimization of the instruction pipeline. To compensate for the command functions, the CPU is often equipped with a large number of general-purpose registers. The CISC processor features a powerful instruction set and different instruction lengths, which facilitates the pipelined execution of instructions. A comparison of RISC and CISC is given in Table 1-2.

Table 1-2. Comparison of RISC and CISC

RISC and CISC have distinct characteristics and advantages, but the boundaries between RISC and CISC begin to blur in the microprocessor sector. Many traditional CISCs absorb RISC advantages and use a RISC-like design. Intel x86 processors are typical of them. They are considered CISC architecture. These processors translate x86 instructions into RISC-like instructions through a decoder and comply with the RISC design and operation to obtain the benefits of RISC architecture and improve internal operation efficiency. A processor's internal instruction execution is called micro operation, which is denoted as micro-OP and abbreviated mu-op (or written m-op or mop). In contrast, the x86 instruction is called macro operation or macro-op. The entire mechanism is shown

in Figure 1-6.

Figure 1-6. Micro and macro operations of an Intel processor

Normally, a macro operation can be decoded into one or more micro operations to execute, but sometimes a decoder can combine several macro operations to generate a micro operation to execute. This process is known as x86 instruction fusion (macro-ops fusion). For example, the processor can combine the x86 CMP (Compare) instruction and the x86 JMP (Jump) instruction to produce a single micro operation—the compare and jump instruction. This combination has obvious benefits: there are fewer instructions, which indirectly enhances the performance of the processor execution. And the fusion enables the processor to maximize the parallelism between the instructions and consequently improve the implementation efficiency of the processor.

Currently, microprocessors used in most embedded systems have five architectures: RISC, CISC, MIPS, PowerPC, and SuperH. The details follow.

 
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