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RISC: Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) Architecture

Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) is a generic term for a type of RISC microprocessor.

ARM is designed by the British company ARM Holdings. The company specializes in the design and development of RISC chips. As a supplier of intellectual property, the company itself does not manufacture its chips, but licenses its designs to other

partners to produce them. The world's major semiconductor manufacturers buy ARM microprocessor cores designed by ARM, add the appropriate external circuits as per different application sectors, and create their own ARM microprocessor chips.

CISC: x86 Architecture

The x86 series CPUs are the most popular CPUs for desktop PCs. The x86 architecture is considered CISC. The instruction set was specially developed by Intel for its first 16-bit CPU (i8086), which was adopted by IBM when it launched the world's first PC in 1981. As Intel launched the i80286, i80386, i80486, Pentium, and other products, it continued to use the x86 instruction set to ensure that legacy applications could be run and protect and integrate diversified software resources. Therefore, those CPUs are called the x86 architecture.

In addition to Intel, AMD, Cyrix, and other manufacturers have also produced CPUs based on the x86 instruction set. Those CPUs can run a variety of software developed for Intel processors, so they are called x86-compatible products in the industry and belong to the x86 architecture. Intel specifically launched the Intel Atom x86 32-bit processor for

embedded systems. Chapter 2 describes and presents the benefits of the 64-bit Intel Atom processor, code-named Bay Trail.

Note IA -32, IA-64, Intel 64, IA-32, IA-64, and Intel64 are Intel's architecture types, which apply to its processors as well as compatible CPUs.

IA-32 (Intel Architecture-32) means Intel's 32-bit architecture processor. The number 32 is the working width of a processor; it can process 32 bits of binary data at a time. If other processors (for example, the AMD 32-bit CPU) are compatible with this architecture, they belong to the IA-32 architecture.

IA-64 (Intel Architecture-64) is Intel's 64-bit architecture. With the 64-bit working width, its microarchitecture is completely different from the x86 architecture. IA-64 is not compatible with x86 software, so the x86 software must use various forms of emulation to run on IA-64, often leading to low efficiency. The architecture is created by HP and

co-developed by HP and Intel. Intel Itanium is a typical IA-64 processor.

Intel64 is a 64-bit x86 architecture with a 64-bit working width. After it was introduced by AMD, Intel launched a compatible processor named EM64T, officially renamed Intel64. Almost all Intel CPUs are now Intel64: Xeon, Core, Celeron, Pentium, and Atom. Contrary to the IA-64 architecture, it can also run x86 instructions.

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