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Special Difficulties of Embedded Application Development

As mentioned earlier in this chapter, embedded systems are generally resource constrained, real time, and robust. These characteristics make application development on embedded systems more difficult than development on general-purpose computers.

The resource-constrained nature of embedded systems means they have fewer resources, lower CPU operation speed and processing, and less RAM than generalpurpose systems. Embedded systems store code and data in ROM or flash instead of on hard drives and have less capacity than hard disks. Most dedicated-purpose embedded systems, especially embedded operating systems, also feature very simple functions compared to general-purpose computers. These resource constraints require developers of embedded hardware to select more rational configurations for chips and peripherals. They must consider resource utilization more carefully than they would when developing for the desktop environment.

The embedded interaction poses special requirements for application development. General desktop computers use the GUI windows, icons, menus, and pointers (WIMP), including common interactive elements such as buttons, toolbars, and dialog boxes.

WIMP has strict requirements for interactive hardware; for example, it requires the display to be a certain resolution and size, and the mouse or similar devices must support the pointing operation. However, the interactive hardware of many embedded systems does not meet WIMP's requirements. For example, an MP3 player's display is too small, with inadequate resolution; ABS has no display; and most embedded systems do not have a mouse or touch screen to complete the pointing operation (for example, basic mobile phones do not have touch screens). Because the interaction for embedded applications is very special, we cannot completely adopt the WIMP interface.

The special user experience and reliability features of embedded systems add to the difficulty of the application development. For example, users expect the startup time for embedded systems to be much shorter than for general-purpose computers. Compared with general-purpose computer systems, it is also more difficult for embedded systems to ensure reliability. When a task problem occurs, embedded systems do not have the Task Manager, Kill command, or similar tools to terminate the faulty process. Obviously, embedded systems have less tolerance for errors than general systems.

Embedded systems generally do not support native code development. Software development on general-purpose computers usually has native development, compiling, and operation. It is not suitable for embedded systems because they do not have enough resources to run development and debugging tools. Therefore, embedded system software usually uses cross-compile development, which generates execution code on another hardware platform.

The cross-compile development environment is built on the host, whereas the embedded system is called the target machine. The cross-compile, assemble, and link tools on the host create the executable binary code, which is not executable on the host: only on the target machine. The executable file is downloaded to the target machine. The development environment on the host doesn't completely reflect the environment on the target machine, so debugging and fault diagnosis of the target machine can be time consuming. The nonnative development model of embedded systems leads to certain challenges for application development.

Summary

This chapter discussed principles for embedded systems, the architecture of SoC, and some pros and cons of platforms such as ARM and x86/x64. Application developers for PCs often ignore the hardware and focus completely on their software, because the two entities are quite independent. However, developers cannot ignore embedded system hardware. Due to the unique features of SoC, constrained resources, and integration

of hardware and software, developers need to understand the working principles and mechanisms of the hardware and hardware layers in order to design efficient applications for the SoC (for example, ARM and x86 have different hardware). The next chapter presents a detailed discussion on the Intel embedded hardware platform including the Intel Atom processor, the Intel embedded chipset, SoC, and the reference platform.

 
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