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Chapter 3 Android Application Development Processes and Tool Chains for Intel® Architecture

This chapter introduces Android† application development on Intel hardware platforms. Developing Android system applications requires some special development, debugging, and performance analysis tools, and the development environment and object formats are different from those of general-purpose desktop computers. Before developing Android applications, we need to learn about the development process of Android system applications.

Android provides a whole set of tool chains (toolsets) for application development.

Early versions of the Android OS supported ARM hardware platforms and started supporting Intel® Atom™ hardware platforms from Android 2.3 (Gingerbread). To support application development on Intel Atom architecture, Intel has added important plug-ins, libraries, and

other auxiliary modules to work in conjunction with Android tool chains. In addition, to help developers to get the performance advantages of Intel hardware, Intel has made available development tools such as compilers and Intel® Graphic Performance Analyzer.

This chapter describes the general processes and methods for Android application development on Intel Atom platforms. The methods to achieve optimized performance and low energy consumption using special Intel tools will be introduced in subsequent chapters.

Android Application Development

The following sections describe the development environment, development process, debugging, and simulation of Android systems.

Development Environment of Android Applications

As we mentioned earlier, software development for general-purpose computers is always achieved through native compilation or development. In general, embedded systems are not compatible with the local development environment and so software development is usually done with cross-development.

Cross-Development

The typical cross-development configuration is shown in Figure 3-1. The crossdevelopment environment is built on the development, or host, machine. Usually the host machine is a general-purpose computer such as a PC. The corresponding embedded system is called the target machine. Target machines can be any of the numerous kinds

of embedded devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and so on. They may also be special evaluation boards or software-based emulators for development provided by embedded system manufacturers. During development, cross-compilation, assembly, and linking tools on the host machine are used to produce binary code that is executable on the target machine; then the executable files are downloaded and run on the target machine. The cross-development method is not only required for compilation but also for debugging.

Figure 3-1. Cross-development configuration of embedded systems

The main reason why cross-development was adopted for embedded systems is that native compilation usually cannot be done effectively on the target machine.

First, the hardware of the target machine is often unavailable or unstable during the development process. Second, there is a lack of complete native compilation tools on the target machine platform. Third, the performance of the target machine is insufficient, resulting in slow compilation. Software compilation on embedded systems is more time consuming than on desktop computers because it requires not only compilation of applications but also compilation of library dependencies and OS kernels. For example, compiling a Linux† kernel on an Intel® Pentium® 4 processor-based PC takes more than 10 minutes. The main hardware factors determining the compiling speed include CPU speed, memory capacity, and file system I/O speed. On these factors, embedded systems usually perform worse than PCs. This results in low efficiency of native compilation on target machines. The cross-development method is always adopted for embedded systems, such as cross-compilation (including cross-linking) and cross-debugging.

Because of the differences between the host machine and the target machine in their configurations, functions, system structure, and operating environments, they are usually connected via serial port, parallel port, USB, or Ethernet connection cables. Toolsets, including encoder, compiler, connector, debugging tool, and software configuration management tool, are installed on the host machine.

Generally, the host machine and the target machine are different in the following aspects:

• Different structure: usually, the host machine is an Intel architecture system while the target machine might be Intel or non-Intel architecture system structure such as ARM or MIPS.

• Different processing capacities: usually, the processing speed and storage capacity of the host machine are better than those of the target machine.

• Different operating systems: usually, a general OS runs on the host machine while an Android OS runs on the target machine.

• Different output methods: compared with the host machine, the input and output functions of the target machine are less capable.

For some Android systems, these characteristics may not exist or are insignificant.

Take the development of an Intel Atom system for example. The host machine and

the target machine use the same system Intel architecture structure. Of course, the instruction sets might be different. For example, the host machine (such as the Intel® Core™ 2 Duo processor) might be compatible with SSE4, while the Intel Atom processor only supports SSE3 .We should consider the instruction set for the target machine

during compilation. Considering the limited resources of most Intel Atom systems, we recommend the cross-development method.

 
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