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Chapter 5 Developing Privacy Engineering Requirements

The expectations of life depend upon diligence; the mechanic that would perfect his work must first sharpen his tools.

— Confucius

I should live my life on bended knee; If I can't control my destiny. You've gotta have a scheme; You've gotta have a plan.In the world of today, for tomorrow's man.

—David Bowie, “No Control”

This chapter begins with a discussion on the topic of requirements gathering. If a business or other enterprise is required to be responsible for personally identifiable information, it'll need to develop strong policies for managing that responsibility, and the entire process begins with determining the crucial requirements for internal and external policy development.

Requirements engineering use cases that leverage an industry-recognized approach will be introduced and applied to personal information (PI) and other data related to

it. The data protection-driven fair processing principles will be leveraged to determine requirements, and a use-case metadata model that is unique to privacy engineering will be introduced.

Third-party service providers and unique distribution channels (such as cloud computing or mobile technology) for personally identifiable information can impact the engineered privacy solution. One should anticipate tumult, digital earthquakes, and continental shifts in the data protection landscape over time and build accordingly. The value in the methodology that is proposed in this chapter is in its inherent flexibility.

The tools themselves are flexible as well so that, for example, if the privacy component is developed, it could be plugged into numerous applications so that any privacy rule changes will be reflected in all applications invoking the privacy component.

This chapter introduces three scenarios to be used throughout the book to illustrate the tools, techniques, methodologies, and sometime pitfalls of the requirements-driven privacy engineering discipline. The requirements use case-driven models to illustrate how a privacy framework may be fitted to a known system's development model to suggest a privacy-driven solution.

Three Example Scenarios

These use-case examples (each explained in detail in Chapters 7, 8, and 9, respectively) should be considered expository workshops rather than a definitive formula that would extend to every data protection context. Different scenarios may require different use cases, and different use cases and policies may require components with different functionality. Nonetheless, the methodology defined in this book is designed to work in all circumstances.

Example Scenario 1: The Privacy Component

Example scenario 1 will show how a privacy management team can develop or acquire a software privacy component (mechanism or tool) that supports and maintains the privacy rules derived from the privacy policies developed to meet the requirements of the enterprise and the people impacted by the enterprise systems. (See Chapter 4 for privacy policy and notice requirements.)

The resultant privacy component can be used independently or invoked by enterprise applications where privacy rules need to be enabled. This example scenario will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 7. The implications and a few potential benefits of an interoperable privacy component will be further explored in Chapter 14 that imagines “A Vision of the Future.”

Example Scenario 2: A Runner's App

Example scenario 2 will present a mobile application for which we developed a use case with Traver Clifford (grandson and nephew to two of the three manifesto authors). Traver was 17 years old and participating in an app development internship. He is one of the first to be trained and recruited as a young privacy engineer and to leverage the privacy engineering methodology. He was also a member of a high school cross-country team and we used his interest area for a case study. The runner's app invokes a simplified privacy component that may be used for mobile and smaller enterprise feature development. The runner's app will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 8.

Example Scenario 3: Hospitality Vacation Planner

Example scenario 3 will assume that the privacy component has been developed, tested, and implemented. A large hospitality company required a system to help its customer community plan a vacation at one of their hospitality sites. The system supported both a telephone call center and a web site. The privacy component was invoked by this new system to ensure that privacy policies were enforced. Further, the hospitality vacation planner example shows the privacy requirements and fair information privacy principles as they operate as functional requirement specifications and quality control measures. This example scenario will be discussed in detail in Chapter 9.

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