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Stage 3: Design an Engineered Solution

Once the analysis of business requirements has been completed, the project team works with the system developers to support the design of system solutions. The team will perform the activities in the following checklist, some of which are described in more detail in the following sections:

• Recommend redesign of business processes, where needed: Existing business processes that need to be revised and improved

• Define automation boundaries: Which business processes can be automated by technology and which processes are administrative

• Develop and utilize the system activity diagrams

• Expand system use cases and class models and supporting metadata

• Design the operational and reporting databases and big data analytics, from logical class or data model and expanded data models, including big data data blocks

• Perform dynamic modeling

• Define service components and supporting metadata, including big data handling components

• Perform system evaluation and prototyping (as needed)

• Define design units based on use cases

• Design presentation layer (user interface), including any content handling or presentation

• Perform development and proof of concept prototyping (if needed)

• Design batch program modules

• Finalize the solution (application and technology) architecture

User Interface Design

Basic User Interface Design Steps

There are several user interface (UI) design best practices that should be followed:

1. Understand your users' requirements:

a. What are they trying to accomplish?

b. How experienced are the users?

c. What interfaces are they used to?

d. What data attributes to be collected or reported upon require special privacy rules?

2. Use UI patterns that are as familiar as possible to the users.

3. Recognize a data hierarchy. For instance, an order with descriptive information about the order and one or more items should be shown as the order description with a list of clickable items that, when clicked on, will give a description of the selected item.

4. Interact with the user:

a. Be as self-descriptive as possible

b. Provide feedback

c. Help users and forgive mistakes

d. As the user becomes more used to the system, allow the user to select a more powerful, sophisticated interface

e. Keep interactions conversational

f. KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid)

Mapping Business Class Objects to System and Technology Objects

The UI can be designed by mapping the business class objects to the system and technology objects.

There are various types of business class objects

Elemental business object:[1] Class and related components and relationships

Complex business class object:[2] User view and related components and relationships, including big data object.

Atomic business object: Data attribute and related components and relationships

System objects are business objects viewed from a system's perspective. There are various types of system objects:

Elemental presentation objects: Forms, lists, reports, or graphics of elemental business objects

Complex presentation objects: Forms, lists, reports, or graphics of complex business objects, including privacy notices

Action selection mechanisms (controls): Icons, pop-up or

pull-down menus, pop-up or pull-down lists, action buttons, radio groups

Specific functional object modules: Ad hoc reports and queries, security, configuration management, privacy notice presentation mechanisms, and consent mechanisms (opt-in or opt-out).

  • [1] Elemental objects or classes may be considered analogous to data classes. Elemental objects are analyzed utilizing an approach called “fact-based normalization.”
  • [2] Complex objects are objects comprising or using information from more than one elemental object.
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