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Rewilding European Landscapes - Henrique M. Pereira

Year 2015


Part I The Theory of RewildingChapter 1 Rewilding Abandoned Landscapes in Europe1.1 Introduction1.2 European Landscapes: Examining the ParadigmsWere Traditional Agricultural Practices Environmentally Friendly?Did Traditional Rural Populations Live Well?Are Current Efforts to Maintain Traditional Landscapes Likely to Succeed?1.3 The Benefits of RewildingDefining RewildingBenefits of Rewilding for BiodiversityBenefits of Rewilding for People: Ecosystem Services1.4 The Challenges of RewildingConflicts with WildlifeLimits to Ecological Resilience1.5 Final RemarksReferencesChapter 2 European Wilderness in a Time of Farmland Abandonment2.1 The History and Value of Wilderness2.2 Measuring and Mapping Wilderness—A Brief Review of Metrics and Methods2.3 Wilderness Metrics2.4 Wilderness Conservation2.5 Farmland Abandonment as Opportunity for Wilderness Expansion2.6 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 3 Ecosystem Services: The Opportunities of Rewilding in Europe3.1 Introduction3.2 The Spatial Distribution of Ecosystem Services in Europe3.3 Wilderness, Rewilding and Ecosystem ServicesWildernessMethodsWilderness and Ecosystem ServicesEcosystem Services and Scenarios of Rewilding3.4 The Economic Benefits of RewildingRegulating BenefitsCultural Benefits3.5 DiscussionReferencesPart II Rewilding and BiodiversityChapter 4 Bringing Large Mammals Back: Large Carnivores in Europe4.1 Introduction4.2 Trends in Large Carnivores in EuropeTo the Edge of ExtinctionMultiple Causes of RecoveryThe Current Status of PopulationsBearsWolvesEurasian Lynx4.3 How Far Can We Take the Recovery Process?What are the Characteristics of “Natural Predation Processes”?The Pervasive Impact of HumansThe Social Tolerance of Humans for Large Carnivores and Large HerbivoresThe Problem of Natural Processes as a GoalFrom Wilderness and Natural Processes to a Future Orientated Coexistence4.4 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 5 Top Scavengers in a Wilder Europe5.1 Introduction: Rewilding Ecosystem Services, Not Only Vertebrate Populations5.2 The Role of Carcasses Within Ecosystems5.3 Vultures and Humans: An Unstable Alliance5.4 Vulture Restaurants and the Loss of a Pulsed Resource5.5 How do Vultures Fit into a Rewilding Continent?5.6 New Services Provided by Vultures5.7 Discussion and ConclusionReferencesChapter 6 Rewilding: Pitfalls and Opportunities for Moths and Butterflies6.1 Rewilding Small-Sized Biodiversity Too6.2 European Lepidoptera: Numbers and Trends6.3 Lepidoptera: Diurnal and Nocturnal Life-Styles6.4 Conservation Objectives: Semi-Natural Biotopes Versus Rewilding6.5 Controlled Rewilding: Reconciling the Objectives6.6 What About Fertile Agricultural Regions?6.7 A Case Study: Farmland Abandonment in Peneda and Its Effects on Macro-moths6.8 Habitat Resource Heterogeneity at Multiple Spatial Scales is Key6.9 Wrapping It Up and the Way ForwardReferencesChapter 7 Vegetation Restoration and Other Actions to Enhance Wildlife in European Agricultural Landscapes7.1 Introduction7.2 The Agriculture and Conservation Paradox7.3 Designing Restoration on Agricultural Land by Strategic RevegetationStrategic Revegetation in Farmed FieldsOther Options for Strategic Revegetation in Agricultural Landscapes7.4 Restoring or Creating Other Specific Elements to Benefit Wildlife and Particular Services7.5 A Practitioner's Perspective7.6 Forest Restoration by Land Separation7.7 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 8 Maintaining Disturbance-Dependent Habitats8.1 Introduction8.2 A Picture of Historical European LandscapesAn Ongoing Debate…Temporal Evolution of the European Landscape8.3 The Role of Natural DisturbancesThe Pre-Neolithic Ecosystem EngineersFire Dynamics8.4 Disturbances and DiversityDiversity and Intermediate DisturbanceEffects of Land-Use Change on Disturbance Regimes8.5 Maintaining Disturbance-Dependent HabitatsWild Herbivores: Natural (Re)colonization or (Re)introduction?Prescribed Burning8.6 Concluding RemarksReferencesPart III Rewillding in PracticeChapter 9 Rewilding Europe: A New Strategy for an Old Continent9.1 The Opportunity of Change9.2 A New Vision for an Old ContinentThe InitiativeNominations from all over EuropeMain ObjectivesThe Operating Model9.3 Applying the Model to the Rewilding AreasGeneralRewildingCommunicationEnterprise Development9.4 First Results in the Rewilding AreasWestern Iberia: Ancient Dehesa and Montado LandscapesVelebit Mountains: The Wild West of the Adriatic CoastEastern Carpathians: One of Europe's Top Wildlife AreasSouthern Carpathians: A Wilderness Arc at the Heart of EuropeDanube Delta: Europe's Unrivalled Wetland9.5 A Future Outlook for Rewilding EuropeReferencesChapter 10 Preparing a New Generation of Wilderness Entrepreneurs Lessons from the Erasmus Intensive Programme 'European Wilderness Entrepreneurship' 201310.1 Introduction10.2 Entrepreneurship in Conservation Education10.3 Case Study: The Erasmus Intensive Programme on European Wilderness Entrepreneurship10.4 Designing a Wilderness Entrepreneurship CurriculumWilderness Entrepreneurship CompetencesLearning Strategies for Wilderness Entrepreneurship EducationLearning Environments for Wilderness Entrepreneurship Education10.5 Lessons Learned for Wilderness Entrepreneurship EducationReferencesChapter 11 Towards a European Policy for Rewilding11.1 Introduction: A Historical Perspective11.2 Current Conservation Policies in the EUNationally Designated Protected AreasBirds and Habitats DirectivesOverall Picture of Protected Areas in the EU11.3 Agriculture and Conservation11.4 Opportunities for Wilderness and Rewilding11.5 Global and European Conservation Targets11.6 Recommendations for RewildingReferences
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