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Perspectives on Auditory Research - Arthur N. Popper

Year 2014


Chapter 1 A Brief History of SHAR1.1 SHAR Background1.2 Volume 501.3 A Brief Overview of SHAR1.4 Our History1.5 Some SHAR Statistics1.6 Working with Springer1.7 The Future1.8 DedicationChapter 2 Structures, Mechanisms, and Energetics in Temporal Processing2.1 Introduction2.2 The Cochlea2.2.1 Pre-1992 Active Hearing and Its Battery2.2.2 A Twenty-Year Perspective as Viewed from the OHC2.2.2.1 Cochlear Amplification for High-Frequency Hearing and Temporal Processing2.2.2.2 The Membrane-Based Lateral Wall Motor2.2.2.3 Full Expression of OHC Electromotility Requires Prestin and Small Intracellular Anions2.2.2.4 Membrane Material Properties Matter2.2.2.5 Turgor Pressure and Membrane Poration2.2.2.6 OHC Stereocilia Bundle and Cochlear Amplification2.3 Central Processing Mechanisms2.3.1 Pre-1992—Establishing the Temporal Limits of Central Processing2.3.2 A 20-Year Perspective as Viewed from the Cochlear Nucleus2.3.2.1 Precision in the Auditory Nerve2.3.2.2 Presynaptic Mechanisms in the Cochlear Nucleus2.3.2.3 Postsynaptic Mechanisms in Cochlear Nucleus Bushy Cells2.3.2.4 Postsynaptic Mechanisms in the MSO2.3.2.5 General Roles for Low-Voltage-Activated K+ Channels in the Auditory Brain Stem2.3.2.6 Other Exceptional Timing Functions in Auditory Pathways2.3.2.7 The Metabolic Costs of Mechanisms Enabling High Temporal Precision2.4 Synthesis and Summary2.5 Future Directions2.5.1 Stereocilia2.5.2 OHC Soma2.5.3 IHC2.5.4 Auditory Nerve2.5.5 Bushy CellsReferencesChapter 3 Human Auditory Cortex: In Search of the Flying Dutchman3.1 Introduction: Beginnings3.2 Tools of the Trade3.3 Enter the Modern Era3.4 Been There, Done That3.5 Convergence3.6 Transitioning3.7 End Game3.8 Looking Ahead3.9 The Last WordReferencesChapter 4 From Cajal to the Connectome: Building a Neuroanatomical Framework for Understanding the Auditory System4.1 Neuroanatomy by Any Other Name…4.2 Neuroanatomy of the Auditory System4.2.1 Some Beginnings4.2.2 The Knowledge Base Grows Apace4.2.3 The Future Is Here4.3 Very Large Databases4.3.1 Finding Better Ways to Share Neuroanatomical Findings4.3.1.1 The Frustration4.3.1.2 A Solution: “Microscopy” Online4.3.1.3 Not So Fast! (A Brief Digression)4.4 The Central Nervous System: Now Appearing in 3-D!4.4.1 An Exemplary Model4.4.2 Auditory Nuclei in the Gerbil4.5 Online Databases Will Repay the Efforts Involved to Build Them4.5.1 Ways Are Needed to Facilitate Localization of Physiological Recording Sites4.5.2 Community Organization4.6 In ConclusionReferencesChapter 5 Recording from Hair Cells5.1 Introduction5.1.1 The Seventies and Eighties5.1.2 The Nineties and Oughts5.2 Mechanoelectrical Transduction5.2.1 Adaptation Is Amplification5.2.2 Transduction Channels: How, Where, What?5.3 Receptor Potentials Are Unexpectedly Diverse5.4 Hair Cell-to-Afferent Transmission Has Surprising Properties5.5 Concluding RemarksReferencesChapter 6 Three Decades of Tinnitus-Related Research6.1 Introduction6.2 Before SHAR6.3 After SHAR, Volume 16.4 The Past Decade: Mechanisms for Tinnitus Without Hearing Loss6.5 Perspectives: Typology of Tinnitus and Use-Dependent Plasticity6.5.1 Noise-Induced, Hearing-Loss-Related Tinnitus6.5.2 Somatic-Induced Tinnitus Without Hearing Loss6.5.3 Tinnitus Without Hearing Loss6.5.4 Stress-Related Tinnitus6.5.5 Tinnitus and Depression6.6 Tinnitus as a Neural Network ProblemReferencesChapter 7 The Sense of Hearing in Fishes7.1 The Early Years7.2 Princeton and Hawaii7.3 To Loyola University Chicago7.3.1 Research Program7.3.1.1 Time and Frequency Domain Processing7.3.1.2 Spike Rate Suppression7.3.1.3 Ripple Noise Processing7.3.1.4 Stimulus Generalization7.3.2 Auditory Scene Analysis and What Fish Listen to7.3.3 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 8 A Quarter-Century's Perspective on a Psychoacoustical Approach to Loudness8.1 Introduction8.2 Definitions, Approaches, and the Importance of Terminology8.3 The Complex Nature of Sound Perception8.4 Approaches to Measuring Loudness8.5 Loudness Work at Northeastern University8.5.1 Investigations of Individual Differences in Loudness Functions Among Normal Listeners and Listeners with Different Types of Hearing Losses8.5.2 Investigations and Models of the Relationship Between Temporal and Spectral Integration of Loudness and the Loudness Function8.5.3 Investigations of How Context Affects Loudness8.5.4 Loudness in the Laboratory and in Ecologically Valid Environments8.6 Looking Toward the FutureReferencesChapter 9 Nonsyndromic Deafness: It Ain't Necessarily So9.1 Introduction9.2 Nonsyndromic Deafness9.3 Rhetoric and Reality9.3.1 X-Linked Nonsyndromic Deafness DFN1 Is Deafness– Dystonia–Optic Neuropathy Syndrome9.3.2 Nonsyndromic Deafness DFNB82 Is Chudley– McCullough Syndrome9.3.3 Perrault Syndrome Not Nonsyndromic Deafness (DFNB81)9.4 Allelic Mutations Can Cause Nonsyndromic or Syndromic Deafness9.5 SummaryReferencesChapter 10 Evolving Mechanosensory Hair Cells to Hearing Organs by Altering Genes and Their Expression: The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Inner Ear and Auditory Organ Evolution and Development10.1 Introduction10.2 From Single Cells to Organs: The Evolution of Hair Cells10.3 From Hair Cells to Ears, Lateral Line Neuromasts, and Vitalli's Organ10.4 From Vestibular Ears to Tetrapod Hearing Organs: Toward the Molecular Basis of Organ of Corti Evolution10.5 SummaryReferencesChapter 11 The Implications of Discharge Regularity: My Forty-Year Peek into the Vestibular System11.1 Background11.2 My Introduction to the Vestibular System11.3 Discharge Characteristics of Vestibular Nerve Fibers11.3.1 Directional Properties11.3.2 Resting Discharge11.3.3 Response Dynamics11.3.4 Response Diversity and Discharge Regularity11.4 Discharge Regularity and Galvanic Sensitivity11.5 Discharge Regularity and Innervation Patterns11.6 Discharge Regularity and Depolarization Sensitivity11.7 Discharge Regularity and Information Transmission11.8 A Case History: SCCs Can Respond to Linear Forces11.9 Current and Future DirectionsReferencesChapter 12 Aging, Hearing Loss, and Speech Recognition: Stop Shouting, I Can't Understand You12.1 Introduction12.2 Historical Perspective12.2.1 Epidemiology12.2.2 Models of Presbycusis12.2.3 Speech Understanding Performance12.3 Key Findings in Recent Years12.3.1 Epidemiology12.3.2 Models of Presbycusis12.3.3 Factors Contributing to Speech Understanding Problems12.3.4 Training to Improve Speech Understanding12.4 Current and Future Directions12.4.1 Demographics12.4.2 Speech Recognition Performance for Real-World Degraded Signals12.4.3 Auditory–Visual Speech Perception12.4.4 Cognitive Load12.4.5 New Directions for Hearing Aid Signal Processing12.4.6 New Models of Adaptation and Training12.5 SummaryReferencesChapter 13 Cochlear Mechanics, Otoacoustic Emissions, and Medial Olivocochlear Efferents: Twenty Years of Advances and Controversies Along with Areas Ripe for New Work13.1 Introduction13.2 Cochlear Mechanics13.2.1 Active Mechanisms and “Cochlear Amplification”13.2.2 What Is the Motor for Mammalian Cochlear Amplification?13.2.3 Cochlear Macromechanics: The Apex Is Different from the Base13.2.4 Cochlear Micromechanics13.2.5 The Mechanical Drive to IHC Stereocilia13.2.6 The Mechanisms by Which MOC Efferents Change Cochlear Mechanics13.3 Otoacoustic Emissions13.3.1 Understanding the Generation of OAEs13.3.2 Using OAEs to Reveal Cochlear Properties13.4 Measuring MOC Effects Using Changes in OAEs13.5 Medial Olivocochlear Efferent Function13.5.1 MOC Effects in Humans13.5.2 The Role of MOC Efferents in Hearing13.5.2.1 MOC Activity Makes It Easier to Hear Signals in Noise13.5.2.2 MOC Activity and Selective Attention13.5.2.3 MOC Activity Reduces Acoustic Trauma13.6 Final ThoughtsReferencesChapter 14 Examining Fish in the Sea: A European Perspective on Fish Hearing Experiments14.1 Introduction14.2 Earlier State of Knowledge14.3 Moving into the Sea: The First Steps14.4 The Acoustic Properties of the Swim Bladder14.5 The Salmon and Its Kind14.6 Masking14.7 Directional Hearing14.8 Current State of KnowledgeReferencesChapter 15 The Behavioral Study of Mammalian Hearing15.1 Introduction15.2 The Evolution of Animal Psychophysics15.2.1 The Early Years15.2.2 The Past 20 Years15.3 Comparative Mammalian Hearing15.3.1 The Early Years15.3.2 The Past 20 Years15.3.2.1 High-Frequency Hearing15.3.2.2 Sound Localization15.3.2.3 Low-Frequency Hearing15.4 Auditory Cortex15.4.1 The Early Years15.4.2 The Past 20 Years15.4.2.1 Cortical Hearing Loss15.4.2.2 Intensity Discrimination15.4.2.3 Frequency Discrimination15.4.2.4 Functional Differences Between Areas of Auditory Cortex15.5 Future Perspectives15.5.1 The Comparative Study of Hearing15.5.2 Behavioral Study of Auditory Cortex15.5.3 Advances in Behavioral ProceduresReferencesChapter 16 Hearing in Insects: The Why, When, and How16.1 Introduction16.1.1 Preliminaries16.2 Bugs, Bats, and Biosonar16.2.1 Fly-by-Night Ears16.2.2 Diversity of Ultrasound-Sensitive Ears in Insects16.2.2.1 The Biosonar Ear: Structure and Function16.2.2.2 Ultrasound-Triggered Startle/Escape Responses16.3 Mating Calls and Species-Specific Recognition16.3.1 Communication16.3.2 The Localization Problem16.4 Audition in Other Insects and Spiders16.4.1 Mechanical Vibrations as Communication Signals16.4.2 Insect That Use Mechanical Vibrations for Signals16.6 Mosquitoes16.7 Looking AheadReferencesChapter 17 The Cognitive Auditory System: The Role of Learning in Shaping the Biology of the Auditory System17.1 Introduction17.2 Anatomy of the Cognitive Auditory System17.3 Cognitively Mediated Physiological Changes—Receptive Fields of Cortex17.3.1 Type or Difficulty of Task17.3.2 Strategy and Attention17.3.3 Neurotransmitters17.4 Cognitively Mediated Physiological Changes—Subcortical Regions17.4.1 Importance of Descending Fibers in Learning17.4.2 Online Implicit Learning of Sound17.4.3 Attention17.5 Cognitive Auditory Processing: Application to Human Communication17.6 Accessing the Cognitive Auditory System in Humans—cABR17.6.1 Stimulus Fidelity17.6.2 Experience Dependence17.7 cABR as a Metric of Auditory System Plasticity17.7.1 Encoding the Fundamental Frequency of a Signal17.7.2 Encoding the Changing F0 of a Signal (Pitch Tracking)17.7.3 Encoding Speech Harmonics17.7.3.1 Combination Tones17.7.4 Encoding of Formant Frequency Timing17.7.5 Encoding the Onset of a Signal17.7.6 Response Consistency17.8 Cognitive Relationships with cABR17.8.1 Neural Signatures of Cognitive Auditory Processing17.9 Conclusions17.10 Future Directions17.11 SummaryReferencesChapter 18 Fundamentals of Hearing in Amniote Vertebrates18.1 The Status of Comparative Research in Auditory Science18.2 The Background18.3 An Interest in Paleontology18.4 A Huge Resource of Limited Usefulness18.5 Remote Sensing: Otoacoustic Emissions18.6 Simple and Complex Lizard Papillae18.7 Active Processes and Hair Cell Specialization18.8 The Definitive Localization of an Active Process to the Hair Cell Bundle18.9 Calcium and the Evolutionary Consequences of the Loss of the Lagena Macula18.10 Frequency Maps of the Papilla and the Functions of the Tectorial Membrane18.11 “High-Frequency” Hearing in Lizards18.12 Hearing in Birds18.13 Barn Owls, the Hearing Specialists18.14 Avian Diversity and a Unique Feature18.15 Projecting from Birds Back to Dinosaurs18.16 What Have We Learned?18.17 Perspectives for the FutureReferencesChapter 19 Directional Hearing in Insects and Other Small Animals: The Physics of Pressure-Difference Receiving Ears19.1 Introduction19.2 Pressure-Difference Receivers19.2.1 Grasshoppers19.2.2 Birds19.2.3 The Tuned Cricket19.3 Perspectives for Future ResearchReferencesChapter 20 Distributed Cortical Representation of Sound Locations20.1 Introduction and Overview20.2 Spatial Receptive Fields and (the Absence of) Spatial Topography20.3 Panoramic Neurons, Distributed Representations, and Population Codes20.4 Population Codes20.5 Specialization Among Cortical Fields20.6 Dynamic Spatial Sensitivity in Awake Animals20.7 How Far Have We Come, and Where Do We Need to Go?ReferencesChapter 21 Pitch: Mechanisms Underlying the Pitch of Pure and Complex Tones21.1 Introduction21.2 The Pitch of Pure Tones21.2.1 Mechanisms Underlying Pitch21.2.2 Evidence for Different Mechanisms at Low and High Frequencies21.2.3 Discrimination of Changes in Frequency of Pure Tones21.2.4 Detection of Frequency Modulation21.2.5 Evidence that Pitch Perception Depends on Both Place and Temporal Information21.2.6 Conclusions on the Pitch of Pure Tones21.3 The Pitch of Complex Tones21.3.1 Pitch Mechanisms21.3.2 The Limits of Resolvability21.3.3 The Dominant Region21.3.4 Further Evidence that Resolvability Is Not Critical21.3.5 Modeling the Effects of N21.3.6 Conclusions on the Pitch of Complex TonesReferencesChapter 22 Unavoidably Delayed: A Personal Perspective of Twenty Years of Research on a Sound Localization Cue22.1 The World Before 199222.2 The World After 199222.3 Where Are We Now?ReferencesChapter 23 Size Matters in Hearing: How the Auditory System Normalizes the Sounds of Speech and Music for Source Size23.1 Introduction to Pulse-Resonance Sounds and Size Information23.2 The Auditory Image and the Normalization of the Auditory Image23.2.1 The Normalized Auditory Image23.3 Size Invariance in Auditory Perception23.3.1 The Role of Sf in Speech Perception23.3.2 The Interaction of Ss and Sf in the Estimation of Speaker Height23.4 Time-Interval Information in Auditory Perception and Auditory Models23.4.1 STI, Autocorrelation, and Scale-Shift Covariance23.5 The Gammachirp Auditory Filter and Joint Time-Frequency Representations of Sound23.6 SummaryReferencesChapter 24 A Changing View of the Auditory System Obtained from the Ears of Bats24.1 Introduction24.2 The Early Years and My First Visit to Germany24.3 Returning to Austin24.4 Mapping the Functional Organization of the Mustache Bat's IC24.5 Mapping the Projections to the Aural Regions in the 60-kHz Contour24.6 A Return Trip to Germany and Where I Met Benedikt Grothe24.7 Back to Austin and the Tom Park Years24.8 A Third Visit to Munich, This Time with Tom Park, and the First Montana Meeting24.9 Up Next, the DNLL24.9.1 The Discovery of Persistent Inhibition24.9.2 The Functional Circuits That Innervate the DNLL Were Experimentally Tested and the Hypothesis Confirmed24.9.3 The Role of the DNLL in the Processing of Multiple Sound Sources in the IC24.9.4 DNLL Innervation of the IC Contributes to Precedence Effect24.10 Back to Munich Again and Confirmation That DNLL Innervation of the IC Contributes to Precedence24.11 Using In Vivo Whole Cell Recordings: The Deeper You Look, the More You See24.11.1 In Vivo Recordings of EI Neurons in the IC Show That the Cells Are Even More Complex Than Previously Thought24.12 Summary, Some Conclusions, and Questions for the Future24.13 Humans Can Echolocate Like a BatReferencesChapter 25 From Cave Fish to Pile Driving: A Tail of Fish Bioacoustics25.1 A Bit of History25.2 Blind Cave Fish and Georg von Békésy25.3 Fish Hearing25.3.1 Early Comparative Studies25.3.2 Comparative Hearing25.4 Comparative Ears25.4.1 Variation25.4.2 Why Multiple Hair Cell Patterns?25.4.3 So Why Variation?25.5 Ultrasound Detection25.6 Addition of Sensory Hair Cells in the Ear25.7 Bridge Construction and Other Applied Issues25.7.1 Seismic Air Guns in the Arctic Circle25.7.2 Pile Driving25.7.3 The Significance of Applied Studies25.8 Final ThoughtsReferencesChapter 26 Current Topics in the Study of Sound Conduction to the Inner Ear26.1 Introduction26.2 An Overview of Middle Ear Sound Conduction26.3 New Developments in Middle Ear Function26.3.1 New High-Resolution Descriptions of Ossicular Structure26.3.2 Factors That Control the Bandwidth of the Middle Ear's Response to Sound26.3.3 How the Tympanic Membrane Couples Sound to the Ossicular Chain26.3.4 The Contribution of Complex Ossicular Motions to Sound Transmission26.3.5 The Reverse Coupling of Sound Generated in the Inner Ear to the External Ear26.3.6 The Question of Inner Ear “Third Windows”26.3.7 New Ways to Diagnose Conductive Hearing Loss26.3.8 New Data and Models of Bone Conduction Stimulation of the Inner Ear26.4 The Next Twenty YearsReferencesChapter 27 From Degenerative Debris to Neuronal Tracing: An Anterograde View of Auditory Circuits27.1 Introduction27.2 History27.2.1 Early Dissections27.2.2 Microscopy and Retrograde Degeneration27.2.3 Golgi Methods27.2.4 Silver Stains and Pathway Tracing27.2.5 Autoradiography27.2.6 Neuronal Labeling27.2.7 Pathway Tracing and the FutureReferencesChapter 28 Adventures in Bionic Hearing28.1 Introduction28.2 Cochlear Implants28.3 Auditory Brain Stem Implant28.4 PABI: Penetrating Electrode ABI28.5 ABI in Nontumor Adults28.6 ABI in Children28.7 New ABI Outcomes in NF228.8 The Auditory Midbrain Implant: Electrical Stimulation of the Inferior Colliculus28.9 Auditory Neuropathy28.10 Possible Physiological Substrates of Speech Recognition28.11 An Acoustic Fovea?28.12 SummaryReferencesChapter 29 My Dull Deaf Ears: Four Millennia of Acquired Hearing Loss29.1 Where We Are Coming from, Where We Are Going29.2 On the Road to the Cure29.2.1 High Hopes29.2.2 Bespoke Interventions29.3 The Scientist and Her Models29.3.1 Alive and Well (?)29.3.2 Fishing for Drugs: Screening Tests29.4 Let's Stop Cleaning Up the Mess: Development of Non-ototoxic Drugs29.5 A Closer Look at Death and Dying29.5.1 Secrets of Shiny Tiny Droplets29.5.2 Modifying the Message: Epigenetics29.5.2.1 Aminoglycosides29.5.2.2 Noise Exposure29.5.2.3 Presbycusis29.5.3 My Gut Feeling: It's the Microbiome29.6 AfterthoughtReferencesChapter 30 What's the Use of Genetics?30.1 Why Genetics?30.2 Some Background—Human Deafness30.3 Genetics as a Tool30.4 The Mouse as a Model30.5 A Long History of Deaf Mice30.6 Chemical Mutagenesis—The Search for New Genes30.7 Targeted Mutagenesis30.8 What Have We Learned from Deaf Mouse Mutants?30.9 Goals for the FutureReferencesChapter 31 Advances in the Understanding of Binaural Information Processing: Consideration of the Stimulus as Processed31.1 Introduction31.2 Relating Binaural Detection, Discrimination, and Lateralization to the Stimuli “as Processed”31.3 Future Directions31.4 SummaryReferencesChapter 32 Temporal Processing: Observations on the Psychophysics and Modeling of Temporal Integration and Temporal Resolution32.1 Introduction32.2 Temporal Integration32.3 Temporal Resolution32.4 Concluding CommentsReferencesChapter 33 Psychoacoustics and Auditory Perception33.1 Introduction33.2 Psychoacoustics Prior to the 1990s33.2.1 The Dominance of Helmholtz33.2.2 The Bell Lab Years33.2.3 The Influence of the Theory of Signal Detection33.2.4 Appreciation of Complex Sounds33.3 Psychoacoustics Post-1990 (Auditory Scene Analysis)33.4 The Auditory Brain33.4.1 Sound Source Localization33.4.1.1 Distance Perception33.4.1.2 Interaural Level Difference33.4.1.3 HRTF and Sound Source Localization33.4.1.4 Multiple Sound Source Localization33.4.1.5 Reverberation and the Effects of Precedence33.4.1.6 Moving Sound Sources and Moving Listeners33.4.1.7 Sound Source Localization and Spatial Release from Masking33.4.1.8 Sound Source Localization, SRM, and Hearing Impairment33.4.2 Complex Pitch Perception33.5 SummaryReferences
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