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Theory and Data in Cognitive Linguistics - Nikolas B. Gisborne

Year 2014


Theory and data in cognitive linguistics GriesBarðdal et alPattenTrousdaleGisborneCristofaroHollmannMatlock et alReferencesFrequencies, probabilities, and association measures in usage-/exemplar-based linguistics1. Introduction2. Collostructional analysis: A brief overview2.1. Perspective 1: CA and its goals2.2. Perspective 2: CA and its mathematics/computation2.3. Perspective 3: CA and its results, interpretation, and motivation3. Bybee's points of critique3.1. Perspective 1: CA and its goals3.2. Perspective 2: CA and its mathematics/computation3.3. Perspective 3: CA and its results, interpretation, and motivation3.3.1. The perceived lack of semantics3.3.2. The perceived lacks of semantics and discriminatory power3.3.3. The absence of cognitive mechanisms underlying CA 4. Clarifications, repudiations, and responses4.1. Perspective 1: CA and its goals4.2. Perspective 2: CA and its mathematics/computation4.2.1. The issue of the corpus size4.2.2. The distribution of pFYE4.3. Perspective 3: CA and its results, interpretation, and motivation 4.3.1. The perceived lacks of semantics4.3.2. The perceived lacks of semantics and discriminatory power 4.3.3 The absence of cognitive mechanisms underlying CA 5. Towards a new empirical perspective and its theoretical implications5.1. A cline of co-occurrence complexity and its motivations/implications5.1.1. Approach 1: Raw frequencies/percentages5.1.2. Approach 2: Association measures5.1.3. Approach 3: Full cross-tabulation5.1.4. Approach 4: Dispersion of (co-)occurrence5.2. Why CA works at all and a brief excursus on Zipf5.3. Towards a refined usage- / exemplar-based definition of construction5.4. ConclusionReferencesReconstructing constructional semantics1. Introduction2. The Dative Subject Construction3. Reconstructing semantics4. Comparison of the semantics of the Dative Subject Construction in Old Norse-Icelandic, Archaic/Classical Latin, Ancient Greek, Old Russian, and Old Lithuanian5. A reconstruction of the semantics of the Dative Subject Construction in Indo-European6. Special characteristics of the Indo-European Dative Subject Construction in the typological landscape7. SummaryReferencesThe historical development of the it-cleft1. Introduction2. Theoretical assumptions2.1. Language structure2.2. Language change2.3. Interim summary3. The object of study3.1. An expletive account of it-clefts3.2. An extraposition account of it-clefts4. Sorting the data4.1. Ball's (1991) it-cleft origin story4.2. Patten's (2012) it-cleft origin story4.3. Handling the OE hit-cleft5. Interpreting the data5.1. The diachronic development of the English it-cleft5.2. Ball (1994) and the mergers of the English it-cleft5.3. Patten (2010) and the constructionalization of the English it-cleft6. ConclusionReferencesTheory and data in diachronic Construction Grammar1. Introduction2. Free adjuncts, absolutes and the what with pattern in contemporary English2.1. A minimalist analysis2.2. A constructional analysis3. Data on the historical evolution of the what with construction3.1. Up to Modern English3.2. Late Modern English 3.2.1. Method3.2.2. Results3.3. Twentieth-century American English (COCA corpus) 3.3.1. Method3.3.2. Results4. Grammatical constructionalization: A cognitive approach to language change4.1. Summary of the principal changes4.2. Grammatical constructionalization5. ConclusionsReferencesThe semantics of definite expressions and the grammaticalization of THE1. Introduction2. Two approaches to definiteness.3. Reference4. The familiarity theory of definites5. An alternative theory of definites6. Modelling the quantifier theory in a cognitive theory of language structure7. Comparing the familiarity theory with the quantifier theory7.1. Case study 1: Scope effects7.2. Case study 2: The definiteness effect7.3. Case study 3: Specificational sentences8. The theories and grammaticalization9. ConclusionReferencesCognitive explanations, distributional evidence, and diachrony1. Introduction2. The development of alignment systems3. The origin of prototype effects4. Concluding remarksReferencesWord classes1. Introduction2. Previous scholarship on word classes2.1. The structuralist-generative approach2.2. The cognitive linguistic approach2.2.1. Langacker2.2.2. Croft2.3. Psycholinguistics3. Questionnaire study design3.1. The questionnaire3.2. Participants3.3. Phonological and distributional properties and scoring schemes 3.3.1. Phonology3.3.2. Distribution4. Phonological properties 4.1. Results4.1.1. Word length4.1.2. Mean syllable length4.1.3. Final obstruent voicing4.1.4. Nasal consonants4.1.5. Stressed vowel advancement4.1.6. Stressed vowel height4.1.7. Presence vs. absence of a final obstruent4.2. Discussion5. Distributional properties5.1. Results 5.1.1. Nouns5.1.2. Verbs5.2. Discussion6. ConclusionReferencesSmashing new results on aspectual framing1. Introduction1.1. Aspect2. Experiment2.1. Participants, materials, and methods3. Results 3.1. Speech3.2. Gesture4. General discussionReferences
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