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The Impact of Food Bioactives on Health - Kitty Verhoeckx


Year 2015

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General IntroductionDigestion and AbsorptionCells Present in the IntestineRole of MicrobiotaReferencesPart I Gastrointestinal Digestion Models, General IntroductionGeneral IntroductionReferencesChapter 1 Static Digestion Models: General Introduction1.1 Definition of Concepts: Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and Bioactivity1.2 Static Methods1.2.1 Solubility/Dialyzability1.2.2 Digestion Conditions1.3 Applications: Advantages and Disadvantages1.4 Static Versus In Vivo Digestion: ConclusionsReferencesChapter 2 InfoGest Consensus Method2.1 Introduction2.2 The Oral Phase2.3 The Gastric Phase2.4 The Small Intestinal Phase2.5 Practicalities2.6 Sampling2.7 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 3 Approaches to Static Digestion Models3.1 Introduction3.2 Static Models for Protein Hydrolysis3.3 Static Models for Lipid Hydrolysis3.4 Other Static ModelsReferencesChapter 4 Dynamic Digestion Models: General Introduction4.1 Geometry4.2 Physical Forces4.3 BiochemistryReferencesChapter 5 The TNO Gastro-Intestinal Model (TIM)5.1 Introduction5.2 Concept of TIM5.3 TIM-15.4 Tiny TIM5.5 Advanced Gastric Compartment (TIM-agc)5.6 The Use of TIM to Study the Bio-accessibility of Nutrients5.7 Protein Quality5.8 Prediction of Glycemic Response5.9 Lipids5.10 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 6 Dynamic Gastric Model (DGM)6.1 Origins and Design of the DGM6.2 General Protocol for DGM Experiments6.3 Uses of the DGM6.3.1 Food-Based Research6.3.2 Pharmaceutical-Based Research6.4 Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations6.5 Availability of the SystemReferencesChapter 7 Human Gastric Simulator (Riddet Model)7.1 Origins of the HGS7.2 Model Description7.2.1 Gastric Compartment7.2.2 Gastric Motility7.2.3 Gastric Emptying7.2.4 Gastric Secretions7.2.5 Temperature Control7.3 Analysis of HGS Biomechanical Relevance7.4 Operating Protocol7.4.1 Preparation of a Food Bolus7.4.2 Gastric Processing7.5 Uses of the HGS7.5.1 Role of ACW Activity on Food Digestion7.5.2 Role of Food Material Properties7.6 Advantages and Limitations7.7 Availability of the SystemReferencesChapter 8 The DIDGI® System8.1 Origins and Design of the DIDGI® System8.2 Validation of DIDGI® for the Digestion of Infant Formula8.2.1 Protocol for the In Vitro Dynamic Digestion of Infant Formula Using the DIDGI® System8.2.2 In Vivo Digestion of Infant Formula on Piglets8.2.3 Comparison In Vitro/In Vivo Data8.3 Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations8.4 Conclusion and ProspectsReferencesPart II General Introduction to Cells, Cell Lines and Cell CultureIntroductionSalt SolutionsCulture MediaMedium QualitypH and CO2Serum AdditionThe Cell Culture HoodCell Culture Terminology (Fig. 1)General Cell Culture ProtocolsTrypsinisation and Subculturing of CellsPassaging of Cells in Suspension CultureFreezing CellsThe Thawing and Recovery of CellsCell Viability TestingContamination of Cell CulturesReferencesChapter 9 Epithelial Cell Models; General Introduction9.1 Measurement of Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER)9.1.1 Basic Protocol9.1.2 Calculating Transepithelial Resistance9.2 Verification of Monolayer Integrity by Lucifer Yellow Flux9.2.1 Basic Protocol9.3 SummaryReferencesChapter 10 Caco-2 Cell Line10.1 Origin10.2 Features and Mechanisms10.3 Stability, Consistency and Reproducibility10.4 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation10.5 General Protocols for Caco-2 Cells10.5.1 General Maintenance10.5.2 Protocol for Polarizing Caco-2 Cells in Tissue Culture Inserts10.5.3 Troubleshooting Guide for Transport Experiments Across Caco-2 Monolayers10.6 Applications10.7 Advantages and Disadvantages10.8 ConclusionReferencesChapter 11 HT29 Cell Line11.1 Origin11.2 Features and Mechanisms11.3 Stability, Consistency and Reproducibility11.4 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation11.5 General Protocol for HT29-MTX Cells11.5.1 Cell Maintenance Protocol11.5.2 Experimental Protocol for Test Compounds11.6 Experimental Read Out11.6.1 Functionality Studies11.6.2 Transport Studies11.6.3 Microorganisms Survival, Adhesion or Invasion11.7 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 12 The IPEC-J2 Cell Line12.1 Origin12.2 Special Features/Morphology/Receptors12.3 Stability/Consistency/Reproducibility of the System12.4 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation12.5 General Protocol12.5.1 Culture Conditions12.5.2 Experimental Readout12.5.3 Sample Preparation12.6 ConclusionReferencesChapter 13 Co-cultivation of Caco-2 and HT-29MTX13.1 Origin, Features and Mechanisms13.2 Stability/Consistency and Reproducibility13.3 Relevance to the Human In Vivo Situation13.4 General Protocol13.5 Assess Viability13.6 Experimental Readout13.7 Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations13.8 ConclusionsReferencesPart III Innate and Adaptive Immune Cells: General IntroductionMonocytes and MacrophagesDendritic CellsHuman Peripheral Blood Mononuclear CellsT Lymphocytes or T-CellsReferencesChapter 14 THP-1 and U937 Cells14.1 Origin and Some Features of THP-1 and U937 Cells14.2 Stability, Consistency and Reproducibility of the System14.3 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation14.4 Other Models with the Same Applicability14.5 General Protocol of Culturing THP-1 Cells14.6 Differentiation of THP-1 and U937 Monocytes into Macrophages14.7 Differentiation of THP-1 and U937 Monocytes into Dendritic Cells14.8 Controls to Test Viability and Performance of the Model14.9 Critical Notes14.10 Read-Out of the SystemReferencesChapter 15 Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells15.1 Origin15.2 Features and Mechanisms15.3 Stability, Consistency and Reproducibility15.4 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation15.5 General Protocol15.5.1 Study of Proliferative/Cytotoxic Activity15.5.2 Study of Inflammatory Responses15.6 Assess Viability15.7 Experimental Read Out15.8 Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the System15.9 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 16 PBMC-Derived T Cells16.1 Introduction and Origin16.2 Features and Mechanisms16.3 Applications of T Cell Cultures16.4 General Protocol16.4.1 T Cell Isolation Protocols16.4.2 Indirect Positive Isolation of Human CD4+ T16.5 Assess Viability16.6 Samples16.7 Experimental ReadoutsReferencesChapter 17 Dendritic Cells17.1 Origin17.2 Features and Mechanisms17.2.1 DC Subsets17.3 General Protocols17.3.1 DC Cell Lines17.3.2 Isolating Primary DCs from Blood17.3.3 CD34+-Derived DCs17.3.4 Monocyte-Derived DCs17.4 Asses Viability17.5 Experimental Readout17.5.1 Co-stimulation17.5.2 Cytokine Production17.5.3 Other DC Readouts17.6 In Vitro Studies on Food Bioactives Using DCs (Table 17.3)17.7 Critical NotesReferencesChapter 18 Co-culture Caco-2/Immune Cells18.1 Origin, Features and Mechanisms18.2 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation18.2.1 Co-culture Caco-2 and Dendritic Cells18.2.2 Co-culture Caco-2 and B-cells (Raji)18.3 Stability, Consistency and Reproducibility18.4 General Protocol18.4.1 Co-culture of Caco-2/Human Monocyte Derived DCs (Include Contact Dependent Events)18.4.2 Caco-2/Human Monocyte Derived DCs (Soluble Factors)18.4.3 Caco-2/THP-1 (Soluble Factors)18.4.4 Caco-2/PBMCs (Soluble Factors)18.4.5 Caco-2/B Cells18.5 Assess Viability18.6 Experimental Readout18.7 Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations18.8 ConclusionsReferencesPart IV Enteroendocrine Cell Models: General IntroductionReferencesChapter 19 STC-1 Cells19.1 Origin19.2 Features and Mechanisms19.3 Stability, Consistency and Reproducibility19.4 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation19.5 General Protocol19.5.1 Cell Maintenance Protocol19.5.2 Experimental Protocol for Test Compounds19.6 Assess Viability19.7 Experimental Read out19.8 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 20 NCI-H716 Cells20.1 Introduction20.2 Origin20.3 Features and Mechanisms20.4 Stability/Consistency/Reproducibility20.5 Relevance to the Human L-Cell In Vivo20.6 General Protocol20.6.1 Cell Maintenance Protocol20.6.2 Experimental Protocol for Test Compounds20.7 Assess Viability20.8 Experimental Readout20.9 ConclusionsReferencesChapter 21 Murine GLUTag Cells21.1 Introduction21.2 Origin21.3 Features and Mechanisms21.3.1 Regulation of GLUTag Cell Secretory Activity by Nutrients21.3.2 Regulation of GLUTag Cell Secretory Activity by Other Signals21.4 Relevance to the Human Situation (L-Cell In Vivo)21.5 General Protocol21.5.1 Maintenance of the GLUTag Cell Line21.5.2 Performance of Secretion and Expression Assays21.6 Assess Viability21.7 Experimental Readout of the System21.8 ConclusionsReferencesPart V In Vitro Intestinal Tissue Models: General IntroductionIntestinal Rings and Intestinal SegmentsEverted SacUssing ChamberIsolated and Perfused Intestinal Segments3-D Culture SystemsReferencesChapter 22 Intestinal Crypt Organoids as Experimental Models22.1 Gastrointestinal Organoids22.2 General Protocol22.2.1 Small Intestinal Crypt Isolation22.2.2 Small Intestinal Organoid Culture22.2.3 Small Intestinal Organoid Passage22.3 Monitoring Viability22.4 General Advantages and Limitations of Intestinal Organoid SystemsReferencesChapter 23 Porcine Ex Vivo Intestinal Segment Model23.1 The Porcine Ex Vivo Intestinal Segment Model23.2 General Protocol23.3 Sample Analysis23.4 Monitoring Viability23.5 Incubation with Food Components and Digested Food Samples23.6 Readout of the Porcine Ex Vivo Intestinal Segment Model23.7 General Advantages and Disadvantages of the ModelReferencesChapter 24 Ussing Chamber24.1 The Ussing Chamber24.2 General Protocol24.3 Monitoring Viability24.4 Use of Digested Food Samples24.5 Readout of the Ussing Chamber System24.6 General Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the Ussing Chamber SystemReferencesPart VI In Vitro Fermentation Models: General IntroductionBatch Fermentation ModelsDynamic Fermentation ModelsInoculation of Gut Fermentation ModelsHost-Gut Microbiota InteractionReferencesChapter 25 One Compartment Fermentation Model25.1 Description of the VTT One Compartment Fermentation Model25.1.1 History of the Model25.1.2 Special Features25.2 Validation of the System25.3 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation25.4 Quality in Relation to Other Models with the Same Applicability25.5 General Protocol25.6 Controls: Positive and Negative25.7 Read Out of the System25.8 Summary of Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the System and Contingency PlanReferencesChapter 26 The TNO In Vitro Model of the Colon (TIM-2)26.1 Description of TIM-226.1.1 History of the Model26.1.2 Special Features of the Model26.1.3 Stability and Reproducibility of the System26.1.4 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation26.1.5 Quality in Relation to Other Models with the Same Applicability26.2 General Protocol26.3 Controls to Test Stability and Performance of the Model26.4 Read-Out of the System and How This Information Can Be Used26.5 Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the SystemReferencesChapter 27 The Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®)27.1 Description of SHIME®27.1.1 History of the Model27.1.2 Special Features of the Model27.1.3 Stability and Reproducibility of the System27.1.4 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation27.1.5 Quality in Relation to Other Models with the Same Applicability27.2 General Protocol27.3 Controls to Test Stability and Performance of the Model27.4 Read-Out of the System and How This Information Can Be Used27.5 Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the SystemReferencesChapter 28 The Computer-Controlled Multicompartmental Dynamic Model of the Gastrointestinal System SIMGI28.1 Description of the Model28.1.1 History and Special Features of the Model28.1.2 Stability and Reproducibility of the System28.1.3 Relevance to Human In Vivo Situation28.1.4 Quality in Relation to Other Models with the Same Applicability28.2 General Protocol28.3 Controls to Test Stability and Performance of the Model28.4 Read-Out of the System28.5 Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the SystemReferences
 
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