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The Cloud Value Proposition

The NIST service and deployment models—namely public, private, and hybrid—get realized through published APIs, whether open or proprietary. It is through these APIs that customers can elicit capabilities related to management, security, and interoperability for cloud computing. The APIs get developed through diverse industry efforts, including the Open Cloud Computing Interface Working Group, Amazon EC2 API, VMware's DMTF-submitted vCloud API, Rackspace API, and GoGrid's API, to name just a few. In particular, open, standard APIs will play a key role in cloud portability, federation, and interoperability, as will common container formats such as the DMTF's Open Virtualization Format or OVF, as specified by the Cloud Security Alliance in the citation above.

Future flexibility, security, and mobility of the resultant solution, as well as its collaborative capabilities, are first-order considerations in the design of cloud-based solutions. As a rule of thumb, de-perimeterized solutions have the potential to be more effective than perimeterized solutions relying on the notion of an enterprise perimeter to be protected, especially in cloud-based environments that have no clear notion of inside or outside. The reasons are complex. Some are discussed in the section “New Enterprise Security Boundaries,” later in this chapter. Careful consideration should also be given to the choice between proprietary and open solutions, for similar reasons.

The NIST definition emphasizes the flexibility and convenience of the cloud, enabling customers to take advantage of computing resources and applications that they do not own for advancing their strategic objectives. It also emphasizes the supporting technological infrastructure, considered an element of the IT supply chain managed to respond to new capacity and technological service demands without the need to acquire or expand in-house complex infrastructures.

Understanding the dependencies and relationships between the cloud computing deployment and the service models is critical for assessing cloud security risks and controls. With PaaS and SaaS built on top of IaaS, as described in the NIST model above, inherited or imported capabilities introduce security issues and risks. In all cloud models, the risk profile for data and security changes is an essential factor in deciding which models are appropriate for an organization. The speed of adoption depends on how fast security and trust in the new cloud models can be established.

Cloud resources can be created, moved, migrated, and multiplied in real time to meet enterprise computing needs. A trusted cloud can be an application accessible through the Web or a server provisioned as available when needed. It can involve a specific set of users accessing it from a specific device on the Internet. The cloud model delivers convenient, on-demand access to shared pools of hardware and infrastructure, made possible by sophisticated automation, provisioning, and virtualization technologies. This model decouples data and software from the servers, networks, and storage systems. It makes for flexible, convenient, and cost-effective alternatives to owning and operating an organization's own servers, storage, networks, and software.

However, it also blurs many of the traditional, physical boundaries that help define and protect an organization's data assets. As cloudand software-defined infrastructure becomes the new standard, the security that depends on static elements like hardware, fixed network perimeters, and physical location won't be guaranteed. Enterprises seeking the benefits of cloud-based infrastructure delivery need commensurate security and compliance. Covering this topic is the objective for this book. The new perimeter is defined in terms of data, its location, and the cloud resources processing it, given that the old definition of on-premise assets no longer applies.

Let's now explore some of the historical drivers of the adoption of cloud technology.

 
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