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Marine Anthropogenic Litter - Melanie Bergmann


Year 2015

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1 A Brief History of Marine Litter Research1.1 Introduction1.2 Seabirds and Seals—The First Signs of Trouble1.3 The Early 1970s—Pellets and Other Problems in the North Atlantic1.4 Shifting Focus to the North Pacific Ocean1.5 Into the Southern Hemisphere1.6 Aloha—The Marine Debris Conferences1.7 Mitigation Measures and Long-Term Changes in Marine Litter1.8 Plastic Degradation and the Microplastic Boom1.9 Summary and ConclusionsPart I Abiotic Aspects of Marine Litter Pollution2 Global Distribution, Composition and Abundance of Marine LitterFrançois Galgani, Georg Hanke and Thomas Maes2.1 Introduction2.2 Composition2.3 Distribution2.3.1 Beaches2.3.2 Floating Marine Debris2.3.3 Seafloor2.3.4 Microplastics2.4 Summary and Conclusions3 Persistence of Plastic Litter in the Oceans3.1 Introduction3.2 Buoyancy and Sampling Errors3.3 Fate of Plastics Entering the Oceans3.3.1 Photo-Oxidative Degradation3.3.2 Mechanisms of Photo-Oxidation3.3.3 Weathering Under Marine Conditions3.4 Microplastics in the Oceans3.5 ConclusionsPart II Biological Implications of Marine Litter4 Deleterious Effects of Litter on Marine Life4.1 Introduction4.2 Entanglement4.2.1 Ways of Entanglement4.2.2 Effects of Entanglement4.3 Smothering4.4 Ingestion of Plastic4.4.1 Ways of Plastic Ingestion4.4.1.1 Intentional Ingestion4.4.1.2 Accidental and Secondary Ingestion4.4.2 Impacts of Plastic Ingestion4.4.2.1 Direct Mortality Caused by Plastic Ingestion4.4.3 Indirect Physical Effects of Plastic Ingestion4.4.3.1 Chemical Effects from Plastic Ingestion4.4.3.2 Chain of Impacts Related to Plastic Ingestion4.4.4 Impacts from Species Dispersal4.5 Discussion5 The Complex Mixture, Fate and Toxicity of Chemicals Associated with Plastic Debris in the Marine Environment5.1 Introduction5.1.1 Plastic Marine Debris: A Complex Mixture of Chemicals5.1.2 Plastics and Their Chemical Ingredients5.1.3 The Accumulation of Chemicals on Plastic Debris in the Marine Environment5.1.3.1 Spatial Variability5.1.3.2 Variability by Plastic Type and Size5.1.4 Plastic Debris, Environmental Chemical Contaminants and Environmental Fate5.1.5 Plastic Debris as a Sink for Environmental Contaminants5.1.5.1 Process of Accumulation5.1.5.2 Rate of Accumulation5.1.5.3 Comparisons with Other Environmental Media5.1.6 Plastic Debris as a Source of Environmental Contaminants5.1.7 Global Transport5.1.7.1 Food Web Transport5.2 Toxicity of Plastic Debris to Marine Life5.2.1 Hazards Associated with Plastic Ingredients5.2.2 Hazards Associated with the Complex Mixture of Plastic and Sorbed Pollutants5.3 Conclusion6 Marine Litter as Habitat and Dispersal Vector6.1 Introduction6.2 Floating Litter as a Habitat6.3 Composition of Rafting Assemblages on Floating Litter6.3.1 Taxonomic Overview6.3.2 Biological Traits of Rafting Invertebrates on Floating Litter6.3.2.1 Mobility6.3.2.2 Feeding Biology6.3.2.3 Reproductive Traits6.3.3 Other Species Attracted to Marine Litter6.3.4 Succession of the Rafting Community6.4 Floating Litter as Dispersal Vector6.5 Summary and OutlookPart III Microplastics7 Microplastics in the Marine Environment: Sources, Consequences and Solutions7.1 Introduction7.2 Definitions of Microplastics7.3 Spatial and Temporal Patterns in the Abundance of Microplastics7.4 Anticipated Future Trends7.5 Conclusions8 Methodology Used for the Detection and Identification of Microplastics—A Critical Appraisal8.1 Introduction8.2 Sampling for Microplastics8.2.1 Water Samples8.2.2 Sediment Samples8.2.2.1 Beaches8.2.2.2 Subtidal Sediments8.2.3 Biota8.3 Laboratory Preparation of Samples8.3.1 Extraction of Microplastics8.3.2 Size Fractionation8.3.3 Sample Purification8.4 Identification of Microplastics8.4.1 Visual Identification8.4.2 Identification of Microplastics by Their Chemical Composition8.4.2.1 Density Separation with Subsequent C:H:N Analysis8.4.2.2 Pyrolysis-GC/MS8.4.2.3 Raman Spectroscopy8.4.2.4 IR Spectroscopy8.5 Case Study8.5.1 Materials and Methods8.5.1.1 Sediment Sampling8.5.1.2 Extraction of Microplastics8.5.1.3 Visual Quantification of Microplastics8.5.1.4 FPA-based Micro-FTIR Spectroscopy8.5.2 Results8.5.2.1 FPA-based Micro-FTIR Analysis of Pre-extracted Particles in Sediment Samples8.5.2.2 Granular Particles8.5.3 Summary8.6 Conclusions9 Sources and Pathways of Microplastics to Habitats9.1 Defining Sources and Pathways of Microplastic9.2 Larger Plastic Litter9.3 Cleaning Products9.4 Medicines9.5 Textiles9.6 Outlook and Conclusion10 Microplastics in the Marine Environment: Distribution, Interactions and Effects10.1 Introduction10.2 The Global Distribution of Microplastics in the Sea10.2.1 Microplastics in the Pacific Ocean10.2.2 Microplastics in the Atlantic Ocean10.2.3 Microplastics in European Seas and the Mediterranean Sea10.2.4 Microplastics in the Indian Ocean and Marginal Seas10.2.5 Microplastics in Polar Regions10.2.6 Modelling the Distribution of Microplastics10.2.7 Summary10.3 Interactions of Microplastics with Marine Organisms10.3.1 Ingestion10.3.1.1 Planktonic Invertebrates10.3.1.2 Benthic Invertebrates10.3.1.3 Fish10.3.1.4 Sea Birds10.3.1.5 Marine Mammals10.3.1.6 Sea Turtles10.3.2 Trophic Transfer10.3.3 Microplastic Effect on Habitats10.3.4 Summary10.4 Conclusion11 Modeling the Role of Microplastics in Bioaccumulation of Organic Chemicals to Marine Aquatic Organisms. A Critical Review11.1 Introduction11.2 Models to Assess the Importance of Microplastic Ingestion11.2.1 Equilibrium Partitioning11.2.2 Decomposition and Disintegration11.2.3 Bioaccumulation11.3 Model-Based Assessment of Implications and Risks of Plastic-Associated Chemicals11.4 Summarizing Discussion and Recommendations12 Nanoplastics in the Aquatic Environment. Critical Review12.1 Introduction12.2 Sources, Detection and Occurrence of Nanoplastic12.2.1 Sources of Nanoplastic12.2.2 Detection and Occurrence of Nanoplastic12.3 Fate of Nanoplastic12.4 Bioaccumulation and Effects12.4.1 Bioaccumulation and Effects of Nanoplastics12.4.2 Implications of Chemicals and Nanofillers Associated with Nanoplastics12.5 Specific Challenges in Nanoplastic Effect Research12.6 Implications and RecommendationsPart IV Socio-economic Implications of Marine Anthropogenic Litter13 Microand Nano-plastics and Human Health13.1 Introduction13.2 What Kinds of Plastics Are in Use?13.3 Plastics and Human Health13.4 Microand Nanoplastics13.4.1 Occurrence of Microand Nanoplastics in the Environment13.4.2 Microand Nanoplastics and Human Health13.4.3 Ingestion of Microand Nanoplastics and Uptake Across the Gut13.4.4 Interaction of Microspheres and Nanoparticles with Cells and Tissues13.4.5 Interactions with Biological Materials and Cells13.5 Assessing the Risks that Microand Nanoplastics Pose to Human Health13.5.1 Leaching of Toxic Chemicals from Plastics13.5.2 Bisphenol a and Human Health13.5.3 Safer Alternatives to BPA13.5.4 Novel Polymer Formulations13.5.5 Nanopolymers and Nanofillers13.6 Conclusions and Future Work14 The Economics of Marine Litter14.1 Introduction14.2 Estimating the Economic Impacts of Marine Litter14.2.1 Beach Cleaning, Tourism and Recreation14.2.2 Shipping and Yachting14.2.3 Fisheries14.2.4 Aquaculture14.2.5 Agriculture14.2.6 Human Health14.2.7 Summary14.3 Marine Litter and Economic Incentives14.3.1 Landfill Taxes/Levies14.3.2 Plastic Bag Initiatives14.3.3 Packaging Producer Responsibility in the EU14.3.4 Charges for Port Reception Facilities14.4 Choosing Economic Instruments14.5 Conclusions15 Regulation and Management of Marine Litter15.1 Introduction15.2 Instruments of Marine Litter at International, Regional and National Levels15.2.1 General Mechanisms of Instruments15.2.2 Examples of Instruments on Marine Litter15.2.2.1 International Instruments15.2.2.2 Regional Instruments15.2.2.3 National Instruments15.3 Types of Management Measures to Combat Marine Litter15.3.1 Preventive Measures15.3.2 Mitigating Measures15.3.3 Removing Measures15.3.4 Behavior-Changing Measures15.4 Potential Gaps in Marine Litter Management15.5 Recommendations15.6 Conclusion16 The Contribution of Citizen Scientists to the Monitoring of Marine Litter16.1 Introduction16.2 Marine Litter Studies Supported by Citizen Scientists16.3 Comparison of Citizen Science and Professional Science Studies on Marine Litter16.3.1 Research Topic16.3.2 Spatial Scale16.3.3 Temporal Scale16.3.4 Regions Where Studies Have Been Done16.4 Data Collection and Quality Control of Citizen-Science Studies16.4.1 Preparation of Easy and Straight-Forward Protocols16.4.2 Training of Volunteers16.4.3 In Situ Supervision by Professionals16.4.4 Validation of Data and Samples16.5 Recommendations for Citizen-Science Projects on Marine Litter16.6 Outlook and Conclusions
 
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