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The European Higher Education Area - Adrian Curaj


Year 2015

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IntroductionThe Future of Higher Education and “The European Level”A Special and “Predictable” Period of Developments in European Higher Education Is Coming to an End?Re-imagining the Future of Higher Education in Europe. What Can Research (and Researchers) Contribute?Part I Internationalization of Higher Education1 Internationalization of Higher Education—What Can Research Add to the Policy Debate? [Overview Paper]1 Introduction2 Its Development3 Impact4 The Future5 Input from the Papers2 Internationalization of Higher Education: Navigating Between Contrasting Trends1 Introduction2 Serving National Priorities Versus Operating in an International Setting3 Government Steering Versus Institutional Autonomy4 Increased Diversity Versus Harmonization5 Competition Versus Collaboration6 Intellectual Property Versus Intellectual Philanthropy7 Concluding Remarks3 Balanced Mobility Across the Board— A Sensible Objective?1 Introduction2 “Balanced Mobility” in the Bologna Process Context—Some Critical Reflections2.1 The Origins2.2 The Caveats3 Why “Balanced Mobility” in 2007?4 How Balanced Are EHEA Mobility Flows?4.1 Balance Between Total Inflows and Outflows per Country4.2 Balance Within EHEA4.3 Balance with Non-EHEA Countries5 More Balanced Flows—What Would This Entail?6 Conclusions: Balanced Mobility—A Reasonable Objective?4 Challenges of Student Mobility in a Cosmopolitan Europe1 Introduction1.1 The CoSMiCE Project2 Student Mobility in Europe3 Impact Factors on European Student Mobility3.1 Recognition3.2 Restrictions and Fees3.3 Financial Support3.4 Social Support3.5 Media Perception3.6 Brain Drain and Brain Gain4 Conclusions and Outlook5 Redefining Internationalization at Home1 Introduction2 Accepted Definitions2.1 Internationalization2.2 Comprehensive Internationalization2.3 Internationalization of the Curriculum3 Contested Definitions3.1 Internationalization at Home and Abroad3.2 The OECD Definition of an Internationalized Curriculum3.3 Campus Internationalization4 Internationalization at Home4.1 What Internationalization at Home Means4.2 Internationalization at Home: The Emergence of the Concept4.3 Existing Definition4.4 Critiques and Appreciation4.5 Continued Relevance of IaH as a Concept4.6 New Definition of Internationalization at Home5 Challenges for Policy and Implementation6 Conclusion6 The Impact of Exposure to Diversity in the International University Environment and the Development of Intercultural Competence in Students1 Internationalization as an Institutional Strategy for Intercultural Competence Development2 Theory and Concepts2.1 The Contact Hypothesis for Intergroup Contact as a Theoretical Framework2.2 Defining Intercultural Competence2.3 Measuring the Development of Intercultural Competence2.4 A Tentative Model for Intercultural Competence Development3 The University Case4 Method5 Results5.1 Development of Intercultural Competence After Nine Months of Study5.2 Polarization5.3 Perception of the Own Level of Intercultural Competence5.4 Impact of the Social Environment6 Conclusions7 Discussion7 Internationalisation as a Lever for Change: The Case of Italy1 Introduction2 Systemic Tradition of Central Planning and Uniformity3 Italian Higher Education Response to the Bologna Process4 Internationalisation as a Lever for Change5 Institutional Responses6 Patterns of Convergence and Divergence7 Dual Accountability8 Isomorphic Tendencies9 Conclusions8 Becoming Bologna Capable: Strategic Cooperation and Capacity Building in International Offices in Kazakhstani HEIs1 Introduction2 Theoretical Perspectives2.1 Internationalization of Higher Education2.2 Institutional Change2.3 Capacity Building and Professional Development3 Kazakhstan Context4 Methodology5 Results5.1 What Forms of Strategic Cooperation Are Considered Necessary for Effective Engagement in Achieving Bologna Process Goals?5.2 Do International Offices Have the Capacity to Engage Effectively in Strategic Cooperation for Bologna Process Goals?5.3 What Do International Office Staff Perceive as Necessary to Develop Their Professional Capacity to Achieve These Goals?6 Discussion6.1 The Potential for IO Leadership for Comprehensive Internationalization6.2 The Need to Increase IO Capacity for Bologna Process in Times of Institutional Change6.3 Making Professional Development for International Office Staff a Priority7 Conclusion9 Internationalization Strategies and Policies in Second-Tier Higher Education Institutions1 Introduction2 Context2.1 Internationalization in Higher Education2.2 Second-Tier Higher Education Institutions2.3 Internationalization in Second Tier Institutions3 Case Studies: Israel, the Netherlands and Canada3.1 Israel3.2 Netherlands3.3 Canada4 Discussion and ConclusionPart II Higher Education Financing and Governance10 Background Note for the Section on Financing and Governance [Overview Paper]11 Strategies for Efficient Funding of Universities in Europe1 Methodology2 Funding of Higher Education Institutions2.1 Income Structures2.2 Public Funding Modalities3 Performance-Based Funding3.1 Funding Formulae3.2 Performance Contracts3.3 Overview of Performance Elements in Block Grant Allocation3.4 Effects of Performance-Based Funding on Higher Education Systems4 Funding for Excellence4.1 Characteristics of Excellence Schemes in Higher Education4.2 Impact on Institutional Profiling and Restructuring4.3 The Role of the University Leadership4.4 Exit Strategies for Institutions and Systems5 Efficiency Measures5.1 Types of Efficiency Measures5.2 Enabling Frameworks6 Conclusions12 Financing Research Universities in Post-communist EHEA Countries1 Introduction2 Historical Overview3 Comparative Study of Some HEIs from Different Countries3.1 A Detailed Insight into the Hungarian R&D Financing in Higher Education4 Conclusion and Recommendations13 Policy Incentives and Research Productivity in the Romanian Higher Education. An Institutional Approach1 Introduction2 Institutional Arrangements Within Romanian Higher Education2.1 The Problem of Increasing Research Productivity2.2 The Academic Career2.3 The Quality Assurance Process2.4 The University Classification Exercise2.5 The New Public Funding Mechanism3 Methodology3.1 Research Productivity and Its Impact3.2 Methods3.3 Data Analysis and Results4 Discussion5 Conclusion14 Patterns of Funding Internationalisation of Higher Education. A Conceptual Framework for the Stud of Internationalisation1 Introduction2 A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Patterns of Funding of Internationalisation2.1 Sources of Funding Internationalisation2.2 Types of Internationalisation Activities Funded (Motivations)2.3 Types of Internationalisation Activities Funded (Geographic Scope)2.4 Instruments of Funding2.5 Funding Strategies3 Conclusions15 The Evolving Landscape of South-East Asian Higher Education and the Challenges of Governance1 Introduction2 The Changing Landscape of Higher Education in South-East Asia2.1 Massification2.2 Diversification2.3 Marketization2.4 Internationalization3 Restructuring Higher Education and the New Modes of Governance and Finance3.1 Governance Structures3.2 Finance and Budget3.3 Human Resource Management3.4 Academic Matters4 Quality Assurance5 Regional Integration and the Efforts on Higher Education Harmonization6 Reform, Regionalization, and the Challenges for Future DevelopmentPart III Excellence and Diversification of Higher Education Institutions' Missions16 Seeking Excellence, Practicing Rankings, and Aiming at Diversification of Higher Education Institutions' Mission in the European Higher Education Area [Overview Paper]1 Introduction2 Excellence3 Diversification4 Rankings5 Concluding RemarksReferences17 Excellence-Driven Policies and Initiatives in the Context of Bologna Process:1 Introduction2 Rationale of Excellence-Driven Policies and Initiatives3 Design of Excellence-Driven Policies and Initiatives4 Implementation and Outcomes of Excellence-Driven Policies and Initiatives5 Conclusion: Excellence-Driven Policies, Higher Education Policies and Bologna Process18 The Knowledge Society and Diversification of Higher Education: From the Social Contract to the Mission of Universities1 Introduction2 Institutional Approach and Contextualization: Previous Research Findings3 The Taxonomy of the Third Mission3.1 The Russell Group3.2 Prime Network3.3 E3M4 Differences and Similarities: The Third Mission as a Task5 Third Mission Aspects in Rankings6 Summary and Outlook19 Excellence and Diversification of Higher Education Institutions' Missions1 Introduction2 Suggestions from RIO+203 The Potential of Rankings4 Conclusion20 “New” Rankings on the Scene: The U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems and U-Multirank1 Introduction2 The General Characteristics of Rankings3 The Criticism of Rankings4 U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems4.1 General Characteristics4.2 Evaluation of U215 U-Multirank5.1 The General Characteristics and Strengths of U-Multirank5.2 Challenges6 Conclusions: Rankings and the European Higher Education AreaPart IV Teaching, Learning and Student Engagement21 Teaching and Learning: An Overview of the Thematic Section [Overview Paper]1 Tensions in the Scholarship on Teaching and Learning and Emerging Research Agendas2 Introducing the Chapters3 Recommendations to the Policy Makers3.1 Findings3.2 Recommendations22 Teaching and Learning: A Journey from the Margins to the Core in European Higher Education Policy1 Introduction2 The Wider Policy Space and the Propagation of Policy Issues3 Method4 Teaching and Learning as a Policy Issue4.1 Teaching and Learning Elements as Structural Descriptors4.2 Teaching and Learning as Pedagogy4.3 Curricular Review4.4 Pedagogic Competence and the Professionalisation of Teaching5 Conclusions23 The Meanings of Student Engagement: Implications for Policies and Practices1 The Problems of Defining Student Engagement2 The Focus of Student Engagement3 Three Degrees of Student Engagement4 Student Engagement as the Formation of Understanding4.1 Student Engagement in the Formation of Understanding as Consultation4.2 Student Engagement in the Formation of Understanding as Partnership4.3 Student Engagement in the Formation of Understanding as Leadership5 Student Engagement in the Formation of Curricula5.1 Student Engagement in Curricula Formation as Consultation5.2 Student Engagement in Curricula Formation as Partnership5.3 Student Engagement in Curricula Formation as Leadership6 Student Engagement in the Formation of Communities6.1 Student Engagement in the Formation of Communities as Consultation6.2 Student Engagement in the Formation of Communities as Partnership6.3 Student Engagement in the Formation of Communities as Leadership7 Discussion8 Implications for Policy Makers24 How Do We Know How Students Experience Higher Education? On the Use of Student Surveys1 Introduction2 The Changing Policy Context and Demand for Data on Students3 Overview of the Most Influential Student Experience and Engagement Surveys4 Methodological Limitations of Student Engagement and Experience Surveys5 Student Surveys as Part of the Development of Student Data Analytics in Institutional Research6 Recommendations to Policy Makers25 Understanding Quality of Learning in Digital Learning Environments: State of the Art and Research Needed1 Introduction: Towards a Theoretical Framework to Understand Teaching and Learning in HE2 Describing and Understanding the Role of Student Characteristics3 Describing and Understanding the Role of the Teaching and Learning Environment4 Understanding Interactions Between Students and Their Environment5 Evaluating Learning Outcomes6 Conclusion26 Assessment of Learning Outcomes1 Introduction2 A Growing Imperative for Transforming Assessment3 Taking Stock of Existing Change Initiatives4 Clearing Barriers to Progress5 Making Progress that Counts6 Assessment Redesign—A Tactic for Reform27 Giving Voice to Non-traditional Students “Walking” the Narative Mediation Path. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis1 Introduction2 Methodology3 Findings from the Evaluative Study of the NMP Training4 Discussions and ConclusionsPart V Social Dimension and Equity of Higher Education28 Equity and the Social Dimension: An Overview [Overview Paper]1 Introduction2 ConclusionReferences29 No Future for the Social Dimension?1 Introduction1.1 The Past: Historical Development of the Social Dimension1.2 The Present: How Is the Social Dimension Being Implemented?1.3 The Future: How Might the Social Dimension Be Developed?1.4 National Actions Plans for Access and Widening Participation1.5 Integration of Local Contexts1.6 Reform the Working Group on Social Dimension (and Lifelong Learning)1.7 Connecting the Social Dimension1.8 Targets for Data Collection1.9 Monitoring, Advising and Peer Learning1.10 Learning and Teaching1.11 Social Infrastructure1.12 Widening Participation Through Early Inclusion in Higher Education1.13 Engaging All Stakeholders1.14 Bottom-Up Approach1.15 Avoiding Ongoing Risks to Students2 Discussion30 A Comprehensive Approach to Investigating the Social Dimension in European Higher Education Systems—EUROSTUDENTand the PL4SD Country Reviews1 Bologna Process and Social Dimension2 Social Dimension—Unique Character3 Comprehensive Evaluation Approaches— EUROSTUDENT and PL4SD4 Looking at the Way Learning Opportunities Are Allocated Within an Education System5 Before Entry to Higher Education6 At Entry to Higher Education7 Study Framework8 Graduation and Transition9 Formative Evaluations of the Social Dimension as Possible Way Forward31 How Did the Latest Increase in Fees in England Affect Student Enrolment and Inequality?1 Introduction2 The 2012 Reforms3 Competing Expectations About the Effects of the Reforms3.1 The Pessimists' View: Lower Enrolment and Higher Inequality3.2 The Optimists' View: Higher Enrolment and Lower Inequality4 Research Design4.1 Pre-treatment Trends4.2 Stability in Composition4.3 Anticipation Effects in Enrolment Decisions5 Data and Results5.1 First Year Enrolment5.2 Enrolment for Different Age Groups5.3 Enrolment for Different Social Classes5.4 Enrolment for Different Ethnic Groups6 Discussion and Conclusion32 Struggling with Social Polarization. Student Financial Support in Romania in the Framework of the Bologna Process1 Introduction2 The Role of the Bologna Process, Equity and Student Support Schemes in Reducing Social Polarization3 Equity in the Romanian Higher Education System3.1 Social Disparities Among Students4 Do Student Support Systems (E.G. Student Scholarships) Increase the Level of Equity in Higher Education?4.1 The Romanian Student Support System: The Case of Student Scholarships4.2 Does the Needs-Based Aid Fulfil the Equity Aim?4.3 How Many Students Are Supported by the Scholarship System?4.4 Who Are the Students Receiving Need Based Aid?4.5 Minimum Living Costs for Students5 Conclusions33 Premises of Inclusive Access and Success of Roma People in the Romanian Higher Education1 National Context1.1 Roma People in Statistics1.2 Discrimination of Roma People in Society and the Educational Environment1.3 National and International Policies for Access to Education of Roma People2 Methodology3 Results3.1 Influence Factors on the Participation of Roma People to Education4 The Efficiency of Reserved Places for Roma People in Six Romanian Universities5 Limitations of Research6 Conclusions and RecommendationsPart VI Education, Research and Innovation34 Bridging Education, Research and Innovation: The Pivotal Role of Doctoral Training [Overview Paper]35 European Doctoral Programs in Light of EHEA and ERA1 The European Area of Higher Education2 The Third Cycle of Tertiary Education3 The BFUG Ad Hoc WG on the III Cycle3.1 Quality in Doctoral Training3.2 Development of Transparency Tools3.3 Employability of Doctoral Graduates3.4 Internationalization and Mobility3.5 Funding4 Doctoral Programs: What for?5 The Italian Way to Doctoral Programs6 Conclusion36 Tuning Tools and Insights for Modern Competence-Based Third-Cycle Programs1 Introduction2 Modern Third Cycle Studies and Tuning3 The Tuning Process4 Tuning Methodology4.1 Tuning Tools for the Third Cycle4.2 Credits as a Planning Tool for the Third Cycle4.3 Enhancing the Quality of Doctoral Mobility4.4 Professional and Industrial Doctorates4.5 Fine and Performing Arts Doctorates4.6 Tuning Sectoral Qualifications Frameworks4.7 Tuning Guide to Creating Degree Programme Profiles (CoRe2)5 Concluding Remarks37 Enhancing the Quality of Research in Europe: Theoretical Perspectives on and Guiding Principles for Researcher Development1 Introduction1.1 Understanding Researcher Development2 Training the “New Academic Generation”: Implications of Understanding Researcher Development and How It Occurs2.1 Promoting Recognition of a 'Better Way'3 A “Better Way” for the European Researcher:3.1 Delineating the Characteristics of Excellent European Researchers: 'Extended' and 'Restricted' Professionality38 The Quality of Doctoral Training and Employability of Doctorate Holders: The Views of Doctoral Candidates and Junior Researchers1 Introduction2 EURODOC Survey I: Background2.1 Sampling and Procedures3 EURODOC Survey I: Findings3.1 Type of Supervision and Training Opportunities: The Perceptions of Doctoral Candidates and Junior Researchers3.2 Current Research Framework and Future Career Paths: Assessments Made by Doctoral Candidates and Junior Researchers4 Conclusions39 The Romanian PhD Students at CERN: The Bologna Process and Beyond1 Introduction2 The RO-CERN Programme2.1 Interdisciplinary Research Teams2.2 Multiculturalism and Internationalization2.3 Personal Research Contributions3 ConclusionsPart VII Quality Assurance40 European Quality Assurance—A European Higher Education Area Success Story [Overview Paper]1 Introduction2 European Universities Consider Quality Assurance an Important Strategic Reform3 Emerging Challenges for External Quality Assurance4 European Quality Assurance “Work in Progress”—The Revised European Standards and Guidelines5 Changes and Challenges for the European Higher Education Landscape Have Implications for Quality Assurance6 Conclusion41 International Quality Reviews with an EQAR-Registered Agency1 Introduction1.1 National Quality Assurance Infrastructure1.2 Case Study Methodology1.3 Sampling Countries and Higher Education Institutions1.4 Design of the Study and Conceptual Framework1.5 Data Collection Methods and Instruments1.6 Case-Study Research Questions1.7 Overview of Case-Studies1.8 The National Context for the Selected Case Studies2 Case-Study Analysis2.1 The Rationale Behind a Cross-Border EQA2.2 Selection of a Suitable QAA2.3 Benefits of a Cross Border EQA2.4 Challenges of a Cross-Border EQA3 Discussion on Findings3.1 Why Turn to a Cross-Border EQA?3.2 Internationalisation as a Driver for EQA3.3 ESG as a Proxy for Trust Within EHEA4 Acronyms and Glossary42 A Merry-Go-Round of Evaluations Moving from Administrative Burden to Reflection on Education and Research in Romania1 Introduction2 Evaluation in Romanian Universities3 Methodological Considerations4 The Policy Problem4.1 Evaluations Are Perceived as Too Bureaucratic4.2 Academics and Students Do Not Feel Ownership Over Evaluations4.3 Evaluations Are Perceived to Be Based on Inconsistent Criteria5 Recommendations for National Policy-MakersObjective 1: Simplify the proceduresObjective 2: Allow professors and students to influence the standards for evaluationObjective 3: Apply a more consistent and open concept of 'quality'6 Recommendations for the UniversitiesObjective 1: Simplify the proceduresObjective 2: Allow professors and students to influence the standardsObjective 3: Apply a more consistent and open concept of 'quality'7 Concluding Remarks43 Students as Stakeholders in the Policy Context of the European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Higher Education Institutions1 Introduction2 Theoretical Framework: Students as Stakeholders in Internal Quality Assurance3 Research Design and Methodology3.1 Data Collection3.2 Data Analysis4 Students' Role in the Studied Dutch Faculty4.1 Students' Role in the Studied German Institute5 Discussion6 Conclusion44 Negotiating Liminality in Higher Education: Formal and Informal Dimensions of the Student Experience as Facilitators of Quality1 Introduction and Institutional Background2 Student Experience and the European Context—A Literature Review3 The Student, 'Threshold Concepts' and Liminality4 Research Design and Methodology5 Results and Discussion5.1 Opening Up and Jumping Off a Cliff5.2 Developing Approaches to Hearing the Student Voice5.3 Creating a Student Experience Office5.4 Promoting a Holistic Student Experience5.5 Developing New Strategies to Facilitate Improved Student Progression Through Liminal Spaces6 ConclusionsPart VIII The Impacts of the Bologna Process on the EHEA and Beyond45 The EHEA at the Cross-Roads. The Bologna Process and the Future of Higher Education [Overview Paper]1 Introduction2 Unfinished Business3 Between Wrapping Up and Launching New Policies: Bologna and the Rest of the World4 Future Priorities5 Governance6 Toward a Conclusion46 Current and Future Prospects for the Bologna Process in the Turkish Higher Education System1 Introduction2 The Bologna Process in Turkey: Implementation, Challenges and Lessons Learned2.1 What Has Been Achieved? What Are the Challenges Ahead?3 Perceptions of Key Actors Toward the Implementation of the Bologna Process4 Concluding Remarks and Recommendations4.1 Recommendations for the Future47 The Bologna Process Goes East?from “Third Countries” to Prioritizing Inter-regional Cooperation B etween the ASEAN and EU1 Introduction2 Regionalism and Higher Education in ASEAN2.1 Regionalism in ASEAN2.2 ASEAN Regional Higher Education3 The Bologna Process Goes East: From Policy Diffusion to Policy Mutation3.1 The Bologna Goes East3.2 Policy Diffusion3.3 Policy Mobility and Mutation3.4 Constitutive Localization4 ASEAN Regional Harmonisation of Higher Education5 An Alternative Regional Model and Inspiration for EU-ASEAN Inter-regional Cooperation48 Future Scenarios for the European Higher Education Area: Exploring the Possibilities of “Experimentalist Governance”1 Introduction2 Unpacking the New Modes of Governance3 Mapping the Governance of the Bologna Process3.1 Setting Goals and Delegating Responsibilities3.2 Reporting and Peer Review3.3 Critical Re-evaluation and Policy Learning4 Lessons for the EHEA4.1 Resisting an “Epistemic Temptation”4.2 Revisiting the Role of European-Level Stakeholders4.3 Recasting the Higher Education Discourse of the European Commission4.4 Reframing National Higher Education Policy Debates5 ConclusionPart IX Evidence-Based Policies in Higher Education: Data Analytics, Impact Assessment and Reporting49 Evidence-Based Policies in Higher Education: Data Analytics, Impact Assessment and Reporting [Overview Paper]1 Introduction2 Overview of the Contribution of the Papers to the Theme3 Conclusion50 Higher Education Research in Europe1 Introduction2 Stages of Development of Higher Education Research3 Higher Education Research in Europe and Its Visibility in the English Language4 Higher Education Research not Visible in the Lingua Franca—The Case of Germany5 Thematic Areas of Higher Education Research6 Types of Institutional Bases and Analysts7 European Communication and Cooperation Within Higher Education Research and with Higher Education Policy and Practice8 Concluding Observations51 A Comparative Study on Cost-Sharing in Higher Education—Using the Case Study Approach to Contribute to Evidence-Based Policy1 Introduction2 Cost-Sharing as Policy Issue3 Method of the Study3.1 Hypotheses3.2 Case Studies and Comparative Analysis4 Discontinuity Countries with Big Shifts in Fee Policy5 Continuity with Some Shifts in Fee Policy6 Analysis and Results7 Endnote52 Does Research Influence Educational Policy? The Perspective of Researchers and Policy-Makers in Romania1 Introduction2 Methods2.1 Method and Instrument2.2 Participants2.3 Data Analysis3 Results and Discussion3.1 The Research in Higher Education in Romania3.2 Research Production3.3 Research Activity Between Duty and Vocation4 Discussion5 Conclusions5.1 At the Micro or Researcher's Level5.2 At an Intervention—Organizational Level5.3 At the Macro Systemic Level of Educational Policies53 Changed Academic Relationship Between Professors and Students at Uni Potsdam: Impact of Bologna 2011–20121 Introduction1.1 The Bologna Process1.2 German Higher Education Reforms1.3 The German Context1.4 University of Potsdam1.5 Literature Review1.6 Conceptual Framework1.7 Methods2 Results and Discussion2.1 Context and Structure2.2 Uni Potsdam's Implementation of Bologna2.3 Greater Pressure for All2.4 More Demands on Time2.5 Change in the Formality of Student-Professor Relationship3 Discussion3.1 Professors Are Adaptable Creatures3.2 Bologna Shifts Humboldtian Ideal3.3 Without Further Harmonization, Confusion Will Ensue4 Conclusion
 
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