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Reflections on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident - Joonhong Ahn

Year 2015


Chapter 1 Integrating Social-Scientific Literacy in Nuclear Engineering Education Approaches Developed in the GoNERI Program1.1 Preamble1.2 GoNERI1.3 PAGES1.4 PAGES 2009 and 2010 Summer Schools1.5 Concept, Aim, and Design of PAGES 2011 Summer School1.5.1 Planning for PAGES 2011 Summer School1.5.2 Aim and Design of PAGES 2011 Program1.5.3 Specific Arrangements for Educational Effectiveness1.6 Results and Evaluation1.6.1 Points Discussed During the Program1.6.2 Evaluation of PAGES 20111.7 Concluding RemarksPart I Understanding the Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its ConsequencesChapter 2 Event Sequence of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident2.1 Overview of the Accident2.2 Unprecedented Mega-Earthquake2.3 Tsunami2.4 Accident Progression for Units 1–32.4.1 Unit 12.4.2 Unit 22.4.3 Unit 32.5 Present Situation of Cores and PCVs of Units 1–32.5.1 Unit 12.5.2 Unit 22.5.3 Unit 32.6 Spent Fuel Pool Cooling2.7 Plant Explosion2.7.1 Units 1 and 32.7.2 Unit 42.8 Concluding RemarksChapter 3 Analysis of Radioactive Release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station3.1 Introduction3.2 Methods of Analysis3.2.1 General Concepts for Various Models3.2.2 Model 1: Release from Fuel with Known/Assumed Inventory3.2.3 Model 2: Codes for Severe Accident Progression Analysis3.2.4 Model 3: Atmospheric Transport Model3.2.5 Model 4: Ambient Dose Rate from the Contaminated Ground3.3 Occurrence of the Accident and Release, Transport, and Washout of the Radiation Plume3.4 Evaluations3.4.1 Approach Based on Radionuclide Release Analysis: Model 13.4.2 Approach Based on Radiation Monitor3.4.3 Comparison Between Approaches3.4.4 Contamination and Environmental Cleanup3.5 Summary and ConclusionChapter 4 Environmental Contamination and Decontamination After Fukushima Daiichi Accident4.1 Prologue4.2 Environmental Contamination4.2.1 Surface Radioactivity Concentrations4.2.2 Radiation Doses Due to Contamination4.2.3 Regulatory Guidelines4.3 Modeling of Decontamination to Help Decision Making4.3.1 Purpose of Modeling4.3.2 Mechanisms Considered in the Model4.3.3 Results4.4 Waste Generation by Decontamination4.4.1 Model and Data4.4.2 Results4.5 Concluding Remarks: Conflicting Values and MotivesAppendix: Mathematical FormulationsChapter 5 Long-Term Energy and Environmental Strategies5.1 Introduction5.2 Regionally Disaggregated DNE215.3 Nuclear and Photovoltaic (PV) Modeling5.4 Model Simulation5.4.1 Simulation Assumptions and Settings5.4.2 Calculated Results5.5 Energy Modeling Challenge After Fukushima5.6 ConclusionChapter 6 Impact of Fukushima Daiichi Accident on Japan's Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Spent Fuel Management6.1 Status Quo6.2 How Has This Status Quo Been Generated?6.3 What Are the Problems with the Current Situation?Chapter 7 Political Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident in Europe7.1 Earlier Accidents7.1.1 The Three Mile Island Accident7.1.2 The Chernobyl Accident7.2 The Fukushima Accident and Radiological Impact7.2.1 The Accident7.2.2 The Size of the Radiological Impact Outside Japan7.3 Technical Assessments and Stress Tests in Europe7.3.1 IAEA Reports7.3.2 The European Union7.4 Political Impact in Europe from Fukushima7.5 Influence of Green Politics in EuropePart II EtiologyChapter 8 Where Was the Weakness in Application of Defense-in-Depth Concept and Why?8.1 Introduction8.2 Weakness in the Application of Defense-in-Depth Concept8.2.1 Level 18.2.2 Level 48.2.3 Level 58.3 Nuclear Safety Regulation8.3.1 Two-Agency System8.3.2 Hardware Focus8.3.3 Frequent Shuffling8.4 Differences in Plant Responses Among 17 Nuclear Power Plants8.5 Cultural Attitude Issues8.5.1 General Observation8.5.2 Related Studies8.5.3 Link with National Culture8.5.4 Future Directions8.6 ConclusionsChapter 9 Ethics, Risk and Safety Culture Reflections on Fukushima and Beyond9.1 Preamble9.2 Introduction9.3 Preliminaries9.4 Historical Perspective on Culture and Technology9.5 Safety Culture, Ethics and Risk9.6 Uncertainty and Safety Philosophy9.7 Reflections on Fukushima Daiichi9.8 Where Do We Go from Here?Appendix A: The Conventional Approach to Risk AssessmentAppendix B: Defense in DepthAppendix C: The Accident Sequence at Fukushima DaiichiChapter 10 The “Structural Disaster” of the Science-Technology-Society Interface From a Comparative Perspective with a Prewar Accident10.1 Introduction10.2 The “Structural Disaster” of the Science-TechnologySociety Interface10.3 The Basic Points About the Fukushima Daiichi Accident from the Perspective of “Structural Disaster”10.4 The Development Trajectory of the Kanpon Type and Its Pitfalls10.5 The Accident Kept Secret10.6 The Hidden Accident and the Outbreak of War with the U.S. and Britain: How Did Japan Deal with the Problem?10.7 The Sociological Implications for the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: Beyond Success or Failure10.8 Conclusion: Prospects for the FutureChapter 11 Three Mile Island and Fukushima Some Reflections on the History of Nuclear PowerPart III Basis for Moving ForwardChapter 12 Implications and Lessons for Advanced Reactor Design and Operation12.1 Short Reflection of Basic Safety Issues12.2 Lessons Learned and Recommendations Derived12.2.1 Natural Hazards12.2.2 Emergency Power Supply12.2.3 Loss of Heat Sink12.2.4 Hydrogen Detonation12.2.5 Measurement at Severe Accidents12.2.6 Management of Severe Accident12.3 Recommendations and Requirements Derived from Lessons Learned12.4 Examples for Potential Countermeasures and/or Technologies to be Applied12.4.1 External Events12.4.2 Design of Buildings, Systems and Components12.4.3 Mitigation Measures Against Severe Accidents12.5 SummaryChapter 13 Understanding the Health Impacts and Risks of Exposure to Radiation13.1 Introduction13.2 Fundamental Concepts13.2.1 Defining and Measuring Ionizing Radiation13.2.2 A Perspective on Natural Versus Man-Made Radiation13.2.3 Distinguishing External from Internal Exposure13.3 Categorizing the Health Effects of Radiation13.3.1 Direct Versus Indirect Effects13.3.2 Acute Versus Chronic Effects13.3.3 Deterministic Versus Stochastic Effects13.3.4 Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous Irradiation13.4 Correlating Radiation Exposure with Health Effects13.4.1 Low Dose Ionizing Radiation13.4.2 Linear-No-Threshold Model13.4.3 Chronic Exposure to Low Dose Radiation13.4.4 Minimizing and Treating Exposure to Radiation13.5 The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident13.5.1 Estimating the Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Subsequent Impact13.5.2 Radionuclides Released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant13.5.3 Health Effects and Consequences13.6 ConclusionsAppendix A: Glossary of Useful TermsAppendix B: Suggested Literature for In-Depth Reading of Topics Discussed in This ChapterChapter 14 Nuclear Safety Regulation in Japan and Impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident14.1 Introduction14.2 Historical Progress of Nuclear Safety Regulation in Japan14.2.1 The First Period (1957–1978)14.2.2 The Second Period (1978–1999)14.2.3 The Third Period (Since 1999)14.3 Two Regulatory “Failures”—Systemic Causes of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident14.3.1 “Failure” of Interdisciplinary Communication14.3.2 “Failure” of Voluntary Safety Efforts14.4 Requirements for New Regulatory System14.4.1 Strengthening Independence14.4.2 Ensuring Integrative Capabilities14.5 Future ChallengesReferencesChapter 15 Radioactive Waste Management After Fukushima Daiichi Accident15.1 Introduction15.2 Legislation for Radioactive Waste Management after Fukushima Daiichi Accident15.3 Management of Contaminated Water15.4 Management of Radioactive Wastes Generated Within Nuclear Power Station15.5 Management of Nuclear Fuels in Nuclear Reactors and Spent Fuel Pool15.6 Concept of Radioactive Waste Disposal15.7 SummaryChapter 16 From Fukushima to the World How to Learn from the Experience in JapanPart IV Reflections by Students and MentorsChapter 17 Students' Reflections17.1 Format for Students' Discussion at the Summer School17.2 Students' Essays17.2.1 Thoughts on Emergency Workers' Dose Limit, by Toshiyuki Aratani, the University of Tokyo17.2.2 The Role of Engineers in Democratic Societies, by Christian Di Sanzo, University of California, Berkeley17.2.3 Greater Public Good and Rationality,by Denia Djokic, University of California, Berkeley17.2.4 Role of Nuclear Professionals After Fukushima, by Kenta Horio, the University of Tokyo17.2.5 Risk Analysis and Public Confidence, by Naomi Kaida, the University of Tokyo17.2.6 Benefits Versus Risk,by Keisuke Kawahara, the University of Tokyo17.2.7 Was Mr. Yoshida Ethical? by Lukis MacKie, University of Tennessee, Knoxville17.2.8 Safety Culture and the Accident, by Hiroshi Madokoro, the University of Tokyo17.2.9 Information Sharing at the Accident, by Haruyuki Ogino, the University of Tokyo17.2.10 Risk Perception and Communication, by Petrus, Tokai University17.2.11 Radiation Risk Communication, by Kazumasa Shimada, the University of Tokyo17.2.12 Benefits Versus Risks, by Kampanart Silva, the University of Tokyo17.2.13 Benefits of Nuclear Power, by Christina Novila Soewono, Tokai University17.2.14 Who Am I? What Is My Own Role on Earth? by Shin-etsu Sugawara, the University of Tokyo17.2.15 The Role of Nuclear Engineers in Society,by Tatsuhiko Sugiyama, the University of Tokyo17.2.16 The Role of Nuclear Engineers in Society, by Eva Uribe, University of California, BerkeleyChapter 18 Educating the Post-Fukushima Nuclear Engineer18.1 Introduction18.2 A Brief History of Nuclear Engineering Education18.3 Post-Fukushima Questions and Answers18.4 Building Sustainable Interdisciplinary Bridges18.5 ConclusionChapter 19 Reflections on Developing an Identity for the Third Generation Nuclear Engineer in the Post-Fukushima Society19.1 Preface19.2 Implications of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident to Nuclear Engineering19.3 Goals for This Chapter19.4 Motivation for This Chapter19.5 What Is a Professional?19.6 A Particular Challenge to Engineering as a Profession19.7 Regarding Public Communication as a Form of Professionalism19.8 Beginning to Understand Professional Ethics as a Responsibility19.9 Final Remarks Regarding Nuclear Engineering as a ProfessionChapter 20 Nuclear Engineers for Society: What Education can do20.1 Introduction20.2 Nuclear Education Reform Before the Fukushima Daiichi Accident20.3 Communication on Science and Technology20.4 Attempts in Nuclear Engineering Community20.5 Unfruitful Results from the Attempts20.6 Is Communication Essential for Advancing Nuclear Engineering?20.6.1 Legitimacy20.6.2 Introspection20.6.3 Trust20.7 Effective Communication20.7.1 Communication with Society and the General Public20.7.2 Communication with Experts in Other Fields20.8 Reform of Education20.8.1 Standardization and Internationalization20.8.2 Transparency and Sharing20.8.3 Social-Scientific Literacy Education20.8.4 Faculty Development and Evaluation20.9 Concluding RemarksPart V Education in FutureChapter 21 Engineers, Social Scientists, and Nuclear Power A Narrative from Within21.1 Introduction21.2 Paths into the Project21.3 Searching for Fit21.4 Voice, Tone, Trust, and Power21.5 After the Accident21.6 Discussing the Fukushima Daiichi Catastrophe21.7 Closing ObservationsChapter 22 Towards More Open-Minded Nuclear Engineering Diversity, Independence and Public Good22.1 Introduction22.2 Denial of Nuclear Power: A Message from Japanese Court22.3 Responses from Nuclear Engineers in Japan22.4 Don't Refuse, but Inspired by the Voice from Society22.5 Democratization of Nuclear Engineering: Not Just for Political Correctness, but Also for Innovation of Technology22.6 Concluding Remarks: Independence and Diversity of Nuclear Engineering for Unprecedented ChallengeChapter 23 Lunchbox-Toolbox: GKS1350021 and Nuclear Engineers23.1 A Request: From GKS1350021 to Nuclear Engineers23.2 Invisibility Versus Transparency: The Ex-SKF Blog23.3 Lunchbox-Toolbox: Meeting Joonhong Ahn23.4 Remediation and GKS1350021: Teaching Contamination as a Literary Critic23.5 Scientist Citizen: Cecile Pineda's Devil's Tango: How I Learned the Fukushima Step by Step23.6 Citizen Scientist: From Nuclear Engineers to GKS1350021Chapter 24 Resilience Engineering A New Horizon of Systems Safety24.1 Introduction24.2 Shift in the Focal Point of Systems Safety24.2.1 Era of Technology24.2.2 Era of Human Error24.2.3 Era of Socio-Technical Interactions24.2.4 Era of Resilience24.3 Progress in Human Reliability Analysis24.3.1 First-Generation HRA24.3.2 Second-Generation HRA24.3.3 Cognitive Model of Team Performance24.3.4 Safety Culture and High Reliability Organization24.4 What Is Resilience?24.4.1 Definition of Resilience24.4.2 Essential Characteristics of Resilience24.5 Social Aspect of Resilience24.6 Key Issues in Resilience Engineering24.6.1 Implementation Process of Resilience24.6.2 Assessment of Resilience24.6.3 Interdependencies Between Systems24.6.4 Decision Support24.6.5 Resilience in Ordinary Situations24.6.6 Social Installation24.7 Conclusion
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