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Sustainable Living with Environmental Risks - Nobuhiro Kaneko


Year 2014

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Sustainable Living with Environmental RisksChapter 1 Managing Environmental Risks and Promoting Sustainability, Scientific Advancement, and Leadership Development1.1 Introduction: Environmental Risks and Their Implications for Future Sustainability1.2 Environmental Risks, Their Characteristics, and Sustainability Implications1.3 Developing Expertise and Skills for Future Environmental Leaders1.4 Leadership Programme in Sustainable Living with Environmental Risk1.4.1 Interactive Multimedia Education System (iMES) (Arisawa and Sato in This Book)1.4.2 Intensive Course1.4.3 Madagascar Joint Field Study1.4.4 Credit Exchange Agreement with UNU1.4.5 Other Elective Courses and Supporting Programs1.5 Achievements and Future Challenges1.5.1 Curriculum Development1.5.2 Institutional Set-up1.5.3 Institutionalizing Collaborative Educational Activities1.5.4 iMES1.5.5 Joint ResearchPart I Sustainable Primary Production for Human Well-BeingChapter 2 Biodiversity Agriculture Supports Human Populations2.1 Introduction2.2 Green Revolution and Organic Farming2.3 Biodiversity, Ecological Functioning, and Ecosystem Services2.4 Soil Sustainability2.5 Soil Biodiversity and Its Functioning2.6 ConclusionChapter 3 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Soil Biodiversity for Agricultural Productivity3.1 Introduction3.2 Soil Biodiversity and Its Importance to Agriculture3.3 Loss of Soil Biodiversity3.4 Management and Conservation of Soil Biodiversity: A Case Study in Kenya3.5 ConclusionChapter 4 Conservation Tillage Assessment for Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emission in Rainfed Agro-Ecosystems4.1 Introduction4.2 Soil, Carbon Dioxide Emission, and Conservation Tillage4.3 Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emission4.3.1 Carbon Dioxide Emission at the Long-Term Plot4.3.2 Cumulative CO2 Emission at the Long-Term Plot4.3.3 Carbon Dioxide Emission Assessment in Farmers' Fields4.4 Enhancing Carbon Sequestration4.4.1 Soil Carbon Storage4.4.2 Carbon Sequestration of Corn Crops4.5 Conclusions and Policy ImplicationChapter 5 Improving Biodiversity in Rice Paddy Fields to Promote Land Sustainability5.1 Introduction5.2 Indonesian Experiences: Effects on Soil and Water Biodiversity of Shifting from Conventional to Organic Farming in Paddy Fields5.2.1 Effects on Water Organisms in Paddy Fields5.2.2 Effects on Soil Microorganisms in Paddy Fields5.3 Strategies to Improve Biodiversity in Rice Paddy Fields5.3.1 Application of Organic Matter and Biofertilizers5.3.2 Crop Rotation5.4 ConclusionsChapter 6 Agroforestry Models for Promoting Effective Risk Management and Building Sustainable Communities6.1 Introduction6.2 Agroforestry Adoption, Innovations, and Smallholder Farmers' Motivations in Claveria, Misamis Oriental6.2.1 Description of the Study Site6.2.2 Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Household Survey6.2.3 Drivers of Land Degradation in Claveria6.2.4 Introduction and Adoption of Tree-Based Systems in Claveria6.2.5 Innovative Agroforestry Practices in Claveria6.2.6 Farmers' Motivations for Planting Trees6.3 Tree Growth, Crop Productivity, and Water6.3.1 Water Dynamics in Agroforestry Systems6.3.2 Growth Performance of Trees and Maize6.4 Enhancing the Food Security of Upland Farming Households Through Agroforestry in Claveria, Misamis Oriental, Philippines6.4.1 Agroforestry and Improved Access to Food6.4.2 Increasing Food Access Through Augmentation of Income6.5 Predicting the Long-Term Productivity, Economic Feasibility, and Sustainability of the Smallholder Hedgerow Agroforestry System Using6.5.1 Bioeconomic Modeling Using WaNuLCAS6.5.2 Water Balance6.5.3 Soil Loss6.5.4 Crop Yield and Biomass6.5.5 Private Benefits of the Two Land Use Systems6.6 ConclusionChapter 7 Managing Environmental Risks and Promoting Sustainability: Conservation of Forest Resources in Madagascar7.1 Introduction7.2 Theoretical Explanation7.3 Case Study7.3.1 Context7.3.2 Poor Governance and Inequality in Income Distribution7.3.3 More Income, Less Logging7.4 Key Issues and RecommendationsChapter 8 Community-Based Mangrove Forest Management in Thailand: Key Lesson Learned for Environmental Risk Management8.2 CBNRM and Sustainability: Theoretical Background8.3 Pred Nai Community-Based Mangrove Forest Management8.4 Discussion8.5 ConclusionPart II Ecosystems, Food Security, and DisasterChapter 9 Necessity of Adaptive Risk Management for Fisheries and Wildlife9.1 Is It Really Good for Fisheries to Reduce the Fish Population by Half?9.2 Comparison Between Conventional Management Methods and Adaptive Management Considering Uncertainty9.3 Do Not Make a Single Prediction (Japanese Deer Protection Management Plan)9.4 Investigation for Only One Year Is Not Enough9.5 Explanation of Formulae9.6 ConclusionChapter 10 Valuation of Non-Marketed Agricultural Ecosystem Services, and Food Security in Southeast Asia10.1 Food Security Issues in Southeast Asia10.2 Need for Valuing Non-Marketed Ecosystem Services10.3 Issues of Valuation and Payment for Non-Marketed Ecosystem Services10.3.1 Revealed Preferences (Conventional and Surrogate Markets)10.3.2 Stated Preferences (Hypothetical Preferences)10.4 ConclusionChapter 11 Emerging Socio-Economic and Environmental Issues Affecting Food Security: A Case Study of Silang-Santa Rosa Subwatershed11.2 Conceptual Framework11.3 Study Site11.4 Results and Discussion11.4.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics11.4.2 Labor Resources11.4.3 Household Financial Status11.4.4 Land-Based Productive Resources11.4.5 Emerging Issues11.5 ConclusionChapter 12 Strengthening the Capacity of Flood-Affected Rural Communities in Padang Terap, State of Kedah, Malaysia12.1 Introduction12.2 Theoretical Framework12.3 Case Study12.3.1 Study Area12.3.2 Needs Analysis12.3.3 Capacity Building Activities12.4 Future Research and RecommendationsChapter 13 Mitigating Coastal Erosion in Fort Dauphin, Madagascar13.1 Introduction13.1.1 Climate13.1.2 Geology13.2 Methodology13.2.1 Data Processing13.3 Results and Discussion13.3.1 Impacts and Causes of Coastal Erosion13.4 Solutions13.4.1 Marine Erosion13.4.2 Subaerial Erosion13.4.3 Wind Erosion13.5 ConclusionPart III Degradation of Environment and MitigationChapter 14 Risk Management of Chemical Pollution: Principles from the Japanese Experience14.1 Introduction14.2 How Pollution Loads Were Reduced14.2.1 Air Pollution in Yokkaichi Petrochemical Complex14.2.2 Preventing Water Pollution in the Pulp and Paper Industry14.2.3 Environmental Standards for Toxic Chemical Substances14.2.4 Case of Administrative Guidance Relating to Toxic Chemicals14.3 Conclusion: Lessons from the Japanese ExperienceChapter 15 Research on the Correlation Between Chlorophyll-a and Organic Matter BOD, COD, Phosphorus, and Total Nitrogen in Stagnant Lake Basins15.1 Introduction15.2 Subjects of Study15.2.1 Chlorophyll15.2.2 BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand15.2.3 COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand15.2.4 Phosphorus15.2.5 Nitrogen15.3 Research Methodology15.3.1 Determination of Chlorophyll15.3.2 Determination of BOD515.3.3 Determination of COD15.3.4 Determination of Phosphate15.4 Results15.4.1 Correlation Between Chl-a and COD15.4.2 Correlation Between Chl-a and BOD15.4.3 Correlation Between Chl-a and Phosphate and Total Nitrogen15.5 Conclusion15.6 Research OrientationChapter 16 Managing Construction Development Risks to the Environment16.1 Introduction16.2 Environmental Risks of Construction16.2.1 Risk of Land Degradation16.2.2 Risk to Flora and Fauna16.2.3 Risk of Water Pollution16.2.4 Risk of Air Pollution16.2.5 Risk from Noise and Vibration16.3 How to Determine Risks16.4 How to Manage Construction Risks16.5 Case Studies16.5.1 Case Study 1 Project: Construction of High-Rise Apartment Buildings at Bukit Gambier, Penang16.5.2 Case Study 2 Project: Construction of High-Rise Housing at Bayan Lepas, Penang16.5.3 Case Study 3 Project: Development of Marina and Jetty Infrastructure at Church Street Pier, Pengkalan Weld, Penang16.5.4 Case Study 4 Project: Demolition of Part of an Existing Building Structure and Renovation of a Hotel in Batu Ferringhi, Penang16.5.5 Case Study 5 Survey16.6 Research on Risks Related to Construction16.7 ConclusionChapter 17 Ecosystem Restoration Using the Near-Natural Method in Shanghai17.1 Introduction17.2 Theoretical Basis for Near-Natural Restoration17.2.1 The Near-Natural Method of Afforestation17.2.2 The Near-Natural Method of River Construction17.3 Near-Natural Forest Creation17.3.1 Monitoring: Stand Dynamics and Eco-Benefits17.3.2 Monitoring Results17.3.3 Assessment of Near-Natural Forest Experiment and Proposal for Improvement17.4 Near-Natural River Construction17.4.1 Monitoring: Water Quality and Biocoenosis17.4.2 Monitoring Results17.4.3 Assessment of Near-Natural River Construction17.5 Concluding RemarksChapter 18 Sustainable Management of Urban Green Environments: Challenges and Opportunities18.1 Introduction18.2 Challenges in Achieving Sustainable Green Urban Environments18.2.1 Waste Management18.2.2 Air Pollution18.2.3 Infrastructure18.3 Opportunities for Sustainable Green Urban Areas18.3.1 Carbon Assimilation18.3.2 Disaster Prevention and Reduction18.3.3 Beautification18.3.4 Nutrition (Fruits)18.4 Case Study: Opportunities in Urban Environments18.4.1 Restoration of an Urban Green Environment18.4.2 Seedling Performance18.5 ConclusionPart IV Policy, Institutuinal and Capacity Development, Education and IME SystemChapter 19 Participatory Sustainability Research for Risk Management and Leadership Development19.1 Introduction: Environment and Social Capacity Assessment for Effective Environmental Risk and Sustainable Resource Management19.2 Genesis and Evolution of Participatory Sustainability Science19.3 Achievements and Challenges in Applying Participatory Sustainability Research: Field Study in Madagascar19.4 Lessons Learned and Ways Forward to ImproveChapter 20 Rural Landscape Conservation in Japan: Lessons from the Satoyama Conservation Program in Kanagawa Prefecture20.1 Crisis of Satoyama Landscapes in Japan20.2 Citizens' Actions for Satoyama Conservation20.3 Governmental Policies for Satoyama Conservation20.4 Satoyama Conservation in Kanagawa Prefecture20.5 The Way Forward20.6 Concluding RemarksChapter 21 Enhancing Students' Ecological Thinking to Improve Understanding of Environmental Risk21.1 Introduction21.2 Ecological Thinking21.3 Case Study21.4 ConclusionChapter 22 Development of Interactive Multimedia Education System (IMES) as an International Education Platform22.1 Introduction22.2 Key Technical Elements of IMES22.3 Basic Video Transmission22.4 Presentation Material Sharing System22.5 Screen/Pointer Action Sharing System22.6 Offline Features Including Recording and Editing22.7 Conclusion and Topics for Future Discussion
 
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