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Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology - Lorenzo Magnani


Year 2014

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Part I Models, Mental Models, RepresentationsSome Ways of Thinking1 Some Ways of ThinkingAgainst Fictionalism1 Magnetic Pull2 Infinitely False Idealizations3 Outsourcing4 Neutral Fictionalism5 Unreasonable Effectiveness6 Empirical Adequacy7 Observational Consequences8 Deflationary Fictionalism9 Whole-Hearted Deflationism10 Dyadicizing Truth11 Inflationary Fictionalism12 Detonation13 Non-empirically Intended Theories14 Abductive Fictionalism15 Explanationist Fictionalism16 Suppressing Detonation17 A Brief Concluding WordFear-Driven Inference: Mechanisms of Gut Overreaction1 Introduction2 Emotions and Rationality3 Fear-Driven Inference4 Gut Overreaction5 Positive Overreactions6 Computer Simulation of Fear-Driven Inference7 Neural Mechanism8 Controlling Gut Overreactions9 ConclusionLiving in the Model: The Cognitive Ecology of Time—A Comparative Study1 Introduction: Time in Cosmos, Life and Mind1.1 Finding Ourselves in Time2 Concepts of Time in History and Culture2.1 The Clock and the Calendar2.2 Time Interval Systems, ''Passage'' and Space–Time Metaphor2.3 Time in the Amondawa Language3 Symbolic Cognitive Artifacts3.1 Artifacts, Cognition and Signification3.2 Language as a Biocultural Niche and the Evolving Human Semiosphere4 Living in Time: Inhabiting and Co-habiting HabitusHow Scientific Models Differ from Works of Fiction1 Introduction2 Different Purposes for Using Models as Epistemic Agents3 Idealizations in Models Lead to New Knowledge4 ConclusionWhat's in a Diagram?1 Introduction2 The General Function of External Representations3 Symbols and Words3.1 Symbols as Semantic and Syntactic Objects3.2 Symbols as Physical Objects3.3 Words as Abstract Symbols4 Figures4.1 Figures as Anchors of Conceptual Structures4.2 Knowledge Deduced from Figures4.3 Figures and Objects5 Diagrams5.1 Elements of the Container Metaphor5.2 Diagrams as Material Anchors for Conceptual Mappings5.3 Commutative Diagrams6 ConclusionModels and Points of View: The Analysis of the Notion of Point of View1 Introduction2 Two Approaches to the Structure of Points of View2.1 The Model of Propositional Attitudes2.1.1 The Conceptualist Reading2.1.2 The Non-Conceptualist Reading: Christopher Peacocke2.1.3 A General Reconstruction2.2 The Model of Location and Access2.2.1 A Behaviourist Approach: Jon Moline2.2.2 A Logical Approach: Antii Hautamäki2.2.3 A Metaphysical Approach: Adrian Moore2.2.4 A General Reconstruction3 Some Implications3.1 A Comparison Between the Two Approaches3.2 The Relational Nature and Modal Dimension of Points of View4 ConclusionsThe Arabic Script, from Visual Analogy to Model-Based Reasoning1 Introduction2 In the Beginning was the Letter3 The 'alif, Matrix of the Arabic Script4 Iconic Functions of Calligraphy5 Model-Based Reasoning in IslamMechanism and Phenomenon of Consciousness1 Mechanistic Models and Dualistic Metaphysics: A Cartesian Controversy and its Legacy2 Dennett: Mechanical Hypothesis and Explanation of Consciousness3 Edelman's TSNG and the Role of Phenomenal Consciousness4 Phenomenon and Mechanism of Consciousness: A Comparison Between Dennett and Edelman5 Phenomenology and Nature: Edelman's Theory and the Problems of Contemporary Science of ConsciousnessInformation Integration in the Brain: Modeling a Putative Function of the Astroglial Network1 Introduction2 Basic Mechanisms of Neuro-Astroglial Interactions3 The Relevance of Neuro-Astroglial Interactions for Conscious Processes4 Implications of the Model and the Need of Corroborations5 Perspectives for Future Research6 Concluding RemarksPart II Abduction, Problem Solving and Practical Reasoning1 Iconicity and Logicality in Abductive Cognition1.1 Perception Versus Inference?1.1.1 Icons, Perceptions, and Model-Based Abduction1.1.2 Emotions as Abductions1.2 Iconicity Hybridates Logicality1.2.1 Knowing as Inferring: The Semiotic View. Is Perception an Inference?1.2.2 Syllogism Versus Perception?1.2.3 Explicit, Uncontrolled, and Unconscious Inferences in Multimodal Abduction1.2.4 Perception is Semi-Encapsulated2 Instinct Versus Heuristic Strategies2.1 Abductive Chickens, Tacit Cognitive Skills, and Manipulative Abduction2.1.1 Manipulative Abduction2.2 Why Does Abduction Enhance Knowledge? Inference and Instincts2.2.1 Synechism: The Blending of Mind and Matter2.3 Peircean Chickens, Human Agents, Logical Agents3 ConclusionHow to Learn Abduction from Animals? From Avicenna to Magnani1 Introduction2 Analogies and Disanalogies between Estimation and Abduction in Animals3 Peirce on Perception as Abduction4 Magnani on Animal Abduction4.1 Toward Abductive Robots4.2 Perceiving Affordances5 Concluding RemarksAbduction and Model Based Reasoning in Plato's Meno1 Introduction2 Stages of the Socratic Elenchus with the Slave Boy3 Recollection as Abduction4 The Parallel Geometric Visual Model and the Algorithm5 Socrates–Slave Boy Elenchus as a Hybrid Algorithm—Abductive (Visual) Model6 The Surprise: No Deduction in the Elenchus Between Socrates and the Slave Boy7 The Meno Elenchus in the Context of the Narrative of the Whole Dialogue8 ConclusionGeneration of Hypotheses by Ampliation of Data1 Introduction2 The Black-Scholes-Merton Hypothesis3 The Feynman Path Integrals Hypothesis4 Processes of Ampliation of Data5 ConclusionAbduction, Competing Models and the Virtues of Hypotheses1 Conceptual Constraint on Hypothesis2 Quantum Gravity, Analogy and Hypothesis3 Penrose on Quantum Gravity4 The Virtues of Hypotheses5 The Scientific ImaginationGalileo's Discovery of the Moons Orbiting Jupiter Based on Abductive Inference Strategies1 Introduction2 Background3 Outline of the Scientific Inference Method Based on Abductive Inference Strategies Involving the Deduction-Induction Recursive Cycle [23]4 Application of our abduction model to Galileo's Discovery of the Moons Orbiting Jupiter4.1 Fixed Stars Hypothesis Suspected4.2 Suggested and Selected Moon Hypothesis4.3 Moon hypothesis Expansion from the Cause, Recognized Formally as the Cause, to its Proper Effects5 Conclusions and DiscussionsIcon and Abduction: Situatedness in Peircean Cognitive Semiotics1 Introduction2 Semiosis and Semiotic Theory of Mind3 Fundamental Kinds of Signs: Icons, Indices, and Symbols4 Iconicity: Operational Notion5 Abduction: First Stage of Inquiry6 Externalization of Constraints as an Iconic-Embedded Abductive Process7 Situated Semiotic Theory of Mind: Some Implications of Abduction and Iconicity8 ConclusionA Logical Model of Peirce's Abduction as Suggested by Various Theories Concerning Unknown Entities1 Introduction to Peirce's Notion of Abduction2 Representing Abduction by Means of Syllogisms3 A Peirce Formal Principle Derived from a Peirce Syllogistic Instance of an Abduction4 Abduction as Theory Generation5 The Kind of Abduction Presented by the Original Texts of some Scientific Theories6 The Common Logical Predicate Concluding the above Theories and its Translation into a New Hypothesis7 The Change in the Kind of Logic8 Leibniz's Principle of Sufficient Reason9 Peirce's Intuitive Approximation of this Kind of Rationality10 ConclusionsFreedom and Moral Judgment A Cognitive Model of Permissibility1 Introduction2 Cultural and Individual Differences in Moral Judgment3 Moral Permissibility and Lakoff's Cognitive Model of ''Freedom''4 Explanatory Advantages of Lakoff's View5 Concluding RemarksModels of Moral Cognition1 Introduction2 Looking for Mr. Goodmodule?3 Two Moral Templates4 The Worm and the Mollusc5 ConclusionPart III Historical, Epistemological, and Technological IssuesMetaphor and Model-Based Reasoning in Maxwell's Mathematical Physics1 Cognitive Tools for Interpretive Understanding2 Maxwell's Use of Mathematical Representation3 Unpacking the Model-Based Reasoning4 Cognition and Metaphor in Mathematical PhysicsBohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom: A Selective Realist Interpretation1 Models and Theories in Physics2 Modelling an Observable Entity: The Sky3 Modelling the Unobservable: The Hydrogen Atom4 Some Philosophical Lessons4.1 Inconsistency4.2 A Selective Realist InterpretationIdentifying Adequate Models in Physico-Mathematics: Descartes' Analysis of the Rainbow1 The New Physico-Mathematics2 Material Models for Discovery in Natural Philosophy3 The Models3.1 Artificial Rainbows in Fountains3.2 The Spherical Glass Modelling a Raindrop3.3 The Prism3.4 Wooden Bowls3.5 The Aperture4 Available Models from Jesuit Physico-Mathematics4.1 Artificial Rainbows in Fountains4.2 The Spherical Glass Modelling a Raindrop4.3 The Prism4.4 Colliding Bowls4.5 The Aperture5 Negotiating Models6 ConclusionPauli's Idea of the Neutrino: How Models in Physics Allow to Revive Old Ideas for New Purposes1 Introduction2 Models and Scientific Discovery in Physics3 Introduction to the Case Study4 Rutherford's Idea of the Neutron5 Pauli's Idea of the Neutrino6 Aftermath of the Case Study7 ConclusionA Historical Case Study of a ''Nested Analogy''1 The Animal Leyden Jar: A Hybrid Analogical Model of ''Second Order''2 The Cabinet: Factual Scenario of the Model Visual StructureFrom Informal Thought Experiments to Agent-Based Models A Progressive Account of Modeling in the Social Sciences1 Introduction2 Informal Thought Experiments3 Mathematical Models4 Agent-Based Models5 ConclusionsGenerative and Demonstrative Experiments1 Introducing the Experiment1.1 Defining the Experiment1.2 Setting the Boundaries of the Laboratory2 How Many Kinds of Experiment Are There?2.1 The Generative Experiment2.2 The Demonstrative Experiment3 Consequences of the Distinction3.1 Differentiating Repetition and Replication of Experiments3.2 The Meaning of ''Failure''4 ConclusionComplex Systems of Mindful Entities:On Intention Recognition and Commitment1 Introduction2 Intention Recognition Promotes the Emergence of Cooperation2.1 Background2.2 Modeling Behavioural Dynamics2.3 Discussion3 Commitment Promotes the Emergence of Cooperation3.1 Model3.2 Related Work3.3 Discussion4 Intention Recognition, Commitment, and Evolution of Cooperation4.1 A Minimal Model Combining Intention Recognition and Commitment4.2 Discussion4.3 Conclusions5 CodaAutonomous Mobile Robots as Technical Artifacts: A Discussion of Experimental Issues1 Introduction2 Toward Good Experimental Methodologies in Autonomous Mobile Robotics2.1 Taking Inspiration From Science2.2 Experiments from Science to Engineering3 Technical Artifacts3.1 The Concept of Technical Artifact3.2 Autonomous Mobile Robots as Technical Artifacts4 Experimental Issues for Technical Artifacts4.1 Technical Function and Experiments4.2 From Design to Implementation4.3 Evaluation Without Ground Truth5 ConclusionsModelling Systems in Technology as Instrumental Systems1 Introduction: The Importance of Systems in Technology and How Engineers Model Them2 The Hybridity and Mereological Complexity of Systems in Technology; Instrumental Systems3 The Main Characteristics of Instrumental Systems4 Taking Care of Mereological Complexity: Stratification of Instrumental Systems into Levels5 Relevance and ApplicationsSimulation Models of Complex Social Systems A Constructivist and Expressivist Interpretation of System Dynamics1 Introduction2 SD as a Paradigm3 A Constructivist and Expressivist Approach3.1 The Constructivist Proposal of John Searle3.2 Robert Brandom's Expressivist Theses4 Three Problems4.1 The Ontological Problem of Realism Concerning SD Models4.2 The Epistemological Problem of the Explanatory Value of SD Models4.3 The Methodological Charge of Merely Creating a Sort of ''Patchwork''4.4 Interactions5 Conclusions and Open QuestionsArchitectural Design Thinking as a Form of Model-Based Reasoning1 Introduction2 Model-Based Reasoning in Architectural Design and Construction2.1 Reasoning in Design Practice2.2 The Leap of Interpretation in Architectural Design and Construction2.3 Linkographs: Quantitative Analyses of the Design Process2.4 The Place of Analogy2.5 The Central Role of the Surrounding Environment3 Simulating Model-Based Reasoning?3.1 Non-omniscient Agents in a Dynamic Epistemic Logic Framework3.2 Unsupervised Data Oriented Parsing4 Revisiting the Basics: Peirce's Process of Scientific Inquiry4.1 Revisiting Peirce's Process of Scientific Inquiry4.2 Simulating Peirce's Reasoning Cycle and Building an Autonomous Reasoning Agent4.3 Outset of the Experiment4.4 The Reasoning Process of the Reasoning Agent4.5 Layered Reasoning Cycles4.6 Results and Conclusions of the Experiment5 ConclusionModels and Ideology in Design1 Introduction2 Revivalism: Looking to the Past3 Modernism: Transcending History4 Industrial Design: Looking to the Future5 ConclusionsHow Affordance Changes: Based on the Coincidence Model of Technological Innovation1 Introduction2 The Coincidence Model of Technological Innovation3 The Modularization of Affordance: With the Developing Process of Technological Innovation3.1 The Accumulation of Affordance3.2 The Modularization of Affordance3.3 The Stabilization of the Affordance Module4 A Niche's Evolution: Trailing the Evolution of Technological Innovation and Affordance4.1 The Appearance, Growth, and Stabilization of a New Niche4.2 A Niche's Mechanism of Evolution: Advancing Affordance's Bootstrapping Method4.3 The Features of a Niche's Evolution: The Affordance's Redundant Inheritance5 Conclusion and Discussion
 
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