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Nuclear Back-end and Transmutation Technology for Waste Disposal - Ken Nakajima


Year 2015

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Part I Basic Research for Nuclear Transmutation and Disposal: Physical and Chemical Studies Relevant to Nuclear Transmutation and Disposal Such as Measurement or Evaluation of Nuclear Cross-Section DataChapter 1 Nuclear Transmutation of Long-Lived Nuclides with Laser Compton Scattering: Quantitative Analysis by Theoretical Approach1.1 Introduction1.2 Calculation Method1.2.1 Reaction via Giant Dipole Resonance1.2.2 High-Energy Photons Obtained by Laser Compton Scattering1.2.3 Setup of the Calculation for 137Cs1.3 Results and Discussion1.3.1 Nuclear Transmutation of 137Cs with Laser Compton Scattering1.3.2 Comparison with Other Nuclides1.4 ConclusionChapter 2 Recent Progress in Research and Development in Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD) for Quantification of Nuclear Materials in Particle-Like Debris2.1 Introduction2.2 Neutron Resonance Densitometry2.2.1 The Concept of NRD2.2.2 A Rough Draft of an NRD Facility2.3 Development of a γ-Ray Spectrometer for NRCA/PGA2.4 Experiments for NRD Developments2.5 SummaryChapter 3 Development of Nondestructive Assay to Fuel Debris of Fukushima Daiichi NPP (1): Experimental Validation for the Application of a Self-Indication Method3.1 Introduction3.2 Experiment3.3 Results and Discussion3.4 SummaryChapter 4 Development of Nondestructive Assay of Fuel Debris of Fukushima Daiichi NPP (2): Numerical Validation for the Application of a Self-Indication Method4.1 Introduction4.2 Calculational Model and Condition4.3 Numerical Results and Discussion4.4 ConclusionChapter 5 Precise Measurements of Neutron Capture Cross Sections for LLFPs and MAs5.1 Introduction5.2 Present Situation of Data for LLFPs and MAs5.3 Measurement Activities by the Activation Method5.4 Measurement Activities at J-PARC/MLF/ANNRI5.5 SummaryChapter 6 Development of the Method to Assay Barely Measurable Elements in Spent Nuclear Fuel and Application to BWR 9 x 9 Fuel6.1 Introduction6.2 Analytical Procedure6.3 Future Plans6.4 ConclusionPart II Development of ADS Technologies: Current Status of Accelerator-Driven System DevelopmentChapter 7 Contribution of the European Commission to a European Strategy for HLW Management Through Partitioning & TransmutationPresentation of MYRRHA and Its Role in the European P&T Strategy7.1 Introduction7.2 MYRRHA: A Flexible Fast-Spectrum Irradiation Facility7.3 The MYRRHA Accelerator7.4 Design of the Core and Primary System7.5 MYRRHA, A Research Tool in Support of the European Roadmap for P&T7.6 ConclusionsChapter 8 Design of J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility8.1 Introduction8.2 Outline of the Transmutation Experimental Facility8.2.1 Outline of TEF-T8.2.2 Outline of TEF-P8.3 Design of Spallation Target for TEF-T8.4 ConclusionChapter 9 Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) Study in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI)9.1 Introduction9.2 Experimental Settings9.2.1 Uranium-Loaded ADS Experiments9.2.2 Thorium-Loaded ADS Benchmarks9.3 Results and Discussion9.3.1 Uranium-Loaded ADS Experiments9.3.2 Thorium-Loaded ADS Experiments9.4 ConclusionsPart III Mechanical and Material Technologies for ADS: Development of Mechanical Engineering or Material EngineeringRelated Technologies for ADS and Other Advanced Reactor SystemsChapter 10 Heat Transfer Study for ADS Solid Target:10.1 Introduction10.2 Surface Wettability Change by Irradiation10.2.1 Sample and Irradiation Facility10.2.2 Contact Angle Measurement10.2.3 Effect of Irradiations on Surface Wettability10.3 Effect of Boiling Heat Transfer on Surface Wettability10.3.1 Experimental Setup and Procedure10.3.2 Results and Discussion10.4 ConclusionsChapter 11 Experimental Study of Flow Structure and Turbulent Characteristics in Lead– Bismuth Two-Phase Flow11.1 Introduction11.2 Measurement Techniques11.2.1 Four-Sensor Probe11.2.2 Electromagnetic Probe11.3 Experimental Setup11.4 Results and Discussion11.4.1 Radial Profiles of Two-Phase Flow Properties11.4.2 Comparison of Interfacial Area Concentration11.4.3 Bubble-Induced Turbulence11.5 ConclusionsPart IV Basic Research on Reactor Physics of ADS: Basic Theoretical Studies for Reactor Physics in ADSChapter 12 Theory of Power Spectral Density and Feynman-Alpha Method in AcceleratorDriven System and Their Higher-Order Mode Effects12.1 Introduction12.2 Theory of Feynman-α Method in ADS12.3 Theory of Power Spectral Density in ADS12.4 ConclusionsChapter 13 Study on Neutron Spectrum of Pulsed Neutron Reactor13.1 Introduction13.2 Experiment at KUCA and Measured Results13.3 Analysis and Discussion of Neutron Flux13.3.1 Neutron Flux Distribution13.3.2 Neutron Spectrum13.4 ConclusionsPart V Next-Generation Reactor Systems: Development of New Reactor Concepts of LWR or FBR for the Next-Generation Nuclear Fuel CycleChapter 14 Application of the Resource-Renewable Boiling Water Reactor for TRU Management and Long-Term Energy Supply14.1 Introduction14.2 RBWR System14.2.1 Overview14.2.2 Core Calculation Method14.2.3 RBWR-AC14.2.4 RBWR-TB14.2.5 RBWR-TB214.3 ConclusionChapter 15 Development of Uranium-Free TRU Metallic Fuel Fast Reactor Core15.1 Introduction15.2 Issues and Measures Against the Uranium-Free TRU Metallic Fast Reactor Core15.3 Parametric Analysis on the Effect of Measures15.3.1 Parametric Analysis Methodology15.3.2 Analysis Results for Doppler Feedback Enhancement15.3.3 Analysis Results for Burnup Reactivity Swing Reduction15.4 Developed Uranium-Free TRU Metallic Core15.4.1 Specification Selected for Uranium-Free TRU Metallic Core15.4.2 Performance of the Uranium-Free TRU Metallic Core15.5 ConclusionsChapter 16 Enhancement of Transmutation of Minor Actinides by Hydride Target16.1 Introduction16.2 Design of MA-Hydride Target16.3 Design of Core with MA-Hydride Target16.4 Transmutation Calculation16.5 Discussion16.6 ConclusionsChapter 17 Method Development for Calculating Minor Actinide Transmutation in a Fast Reactor17.1 Introduction17.2 MA Transmutation Core Concept17.3 MA Transmutation Rate17.4 Sensitivity Calculation Method17.4.1 Sensitivity to Infinite-Dilution Cross Section17.4.2 Burn-up Sensitivity17.4.3 Dependence of Sensitivities on Numbers of Energy Groups17.5 Reduction of Prediction Uncertainty17.6 ConclusionChapter 18 Overview of European Experience with Thorium Fuels18.1 Introduction18.2 Thorium European Research Programme History18.3 Th-MOX Fuels Irradiated in LWR Conditions18.4 The Molten Salt Reactor18.5 ConclusionsPart VI Reactor Physics Studies for Post Fukushima Accident Nuclear Energy: Studies from the Reactor Physics Aspect for Back-End Issues Such as Treatment of Debris from the Fukushima AccidentChapter 19 Transmutation Scenarios after Closing Nuclear Power Plants19.1 Introduction19.2 Methodology19.2.1 Neutronics Calculation19.2.2 Scenario Analysis19.2.3 Transmutation Half-Life19.3 ADS Design for Pu Transmutation19.3.1 Reference ADS (MA-ADS)19.3.2 Assumption of Pu Feed19.3.3 Result of One-Batch Core19.3.4 Result of six-Batch Core19.4 Scenario Analysis19.4.1 Result of LWR-OT19.4.2 Result of LWR-PuT19.4.3 Result of FR19.4.4 Result of ADS19.4.5 Result of FR+ADS19.4.6 Impact on the Repository19.4.7 Discussion19.5 ConclusionChapter 20 Sensitivity Analyses of Initial Compositions and Cross Sections for Activation Products of In-Core Structure Materials20.1 Introduction20.2 Method of Calculating Sensitivity Coefficients20.3 Sensitivity Analyses20.3.1 Analyses Conditions20.3.2 Target Nuclides of Sensitivity Analyses20.3.3 Results of Sensitivity Analyses20.3.4 Sensitivity Analysis Using the Initial Composition Based on Measured Data20.4 ConclusionChapter 21 Options of Principles of Fuel Debris Criticality Control in Fukushima Daiichi Reactors21.1 Introduction21.2 Present Condition of 1FNPS Fuel Debris21.3 Criticality Characteristics of Fuel Debris21.4 Options of Criticality Control Principles21.4.1 Prevention of Criticality by Poison or Dry Process21.4.2 Prevention of Criticality by Monitoring21.4.3 Prevention of Severe Consequence21.4.4 Risk Assessment21.5 ConclusionsChapter 22 Modification of the STACY Critical Facility for Experimental Study on Fuel Debris Criticality Control22.1 Introduction22.2 Experimental Study on Criticality Control for Fuel Debris22.2.1 Modification of STACY22.2.2 Critical Experiments on Criticality Safety for Fuel Debris22.2.3 Manufacturing and Analytical Equipment for Simulated Fuel Debris Samples [12]22.3 License Application and Schedule of the STACY Modification22.4 Concluding SummaryPart VII Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policy and Technologies: National Policy, Current Status, Future Prospects and Public Acceptance of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Including Geological DisposalChapter 23 Expectation for Nuclear Transmutation23.1 Demand for Primary Energy and Electricity Is Increasing Year by Year23.2 Global Warming Is Becoming a More Serious Problem23.3 The Development of Renewable Energy Must Be Promoted. However, It Will Require Sufficient Resources of Time and Budget23.4 Human Beings Cannot Avoid Depending on Nuclear Energy as Well as Other Energy Resources, Including Renewable Energy, Which Do Not Emit CO223.5 Nuclear Technology Must be Developed23.5.1 Safety Technology of Nuclear Energy Must Be Developed for the Future23.5.2 Technology for the Back-end of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Must Be Enhanced. The Site for Final Disposal of Nuclear Wastes Must be Determined as Soon23.5.3 Research and Development of Innovative Technologies, Such as Accelerator-Driven Systems, Must Be Promoted to Encourage the Progress of Final Disposal23.5.4 The Research and Development of Nuclear Technologies for Reactor Decommissioning, Safety Technology, Back-end, etc., Must Be Promoted Intensively Through International Cooperation23.6 ConclusionChapter 24 Issues of HLW Disposal in Japan24.1 Concerns on HLW24.2 Current Status of HLW24.3 HLW Disposal Program in Japan24.4 Concept of Geological Disposal and Risk24.5 Difficulty in Site Selection24.6 Six Proposals by the Science Council of Japan24.7 Setting a Moratorium Period by “Temporal Safe Storage”24.8 “Management of the Total Amount” of HLW24.9 Awareness of the Limits of Scientific and Technical AbilitiesChapter 25 Considering the Geological Disposal Program of High-Level Radioactive Waste Through Classroom Debate25.1 Introduction25.1.1 The Situation Now25.1.2 Why has Such a Situation Occurred?25.1.3 Deciding the Topic25.2 Research Method25.2.1 Outline of the Courses25.3 Reflections on the Courses25.4 Results of the Questionnaire Survey25.5 Issues for the Future25.6 NotesPart VIII Environmental Radioactivity: Development of Radioactivity Measurement Methods and Activity of Radionuclides in the Environment Monitored After the Accidents at TEPCO's Nuclear Power StationsChapter 26 Environmental Transfer of Carbon-14 in Japanese Paddy Fields26.1 Introduction26.2 Partitioning of 14C into Solid, Liquid, and Gas Phases26.3 Involvement of Microorganisms in the 14C Behavior26.4 Transfer of 14C from Soil to Rice Plants26.5 Behavior of 14C in Rice Paddy FieldsChapter 27 Development of a Rapid Analytical Method for 129I in the Contaminated Water and Tree Samples at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station27.1 Introduction27.2 Experimental27.2.1 Reagents27.2.2 Separation Using Anion-SR27.3 Combustion Method27.4 Results and Discussion27.4.1 Separation Using Anion-SR27.4.2 Combustion Method27.5 ConclusionPart IX Treatment of Radioactive Waste: Reduction of the Radioactivity or Volume of Nuclear WastesChapter 28 Consideration of Treatment and Disposal of Secondary Wastes Generated from Treatment of Contaminated Water28.1 Introduction28.2 Requirements for an Inventory List and Online Waste Management System28.3 Development Strategy of Waste Treatment, Storage, Transport, and Disposal Technologies28.4 Formation of an R&D Implementation and Evaluation Team28.5 Requirements for Long-Term Knowledge Management28.6 ConclusionChapter 29 Volume Reduction of Municipal Solid Wastes Contaminated with Radioactive Cesium by Ferrocyanide Coprecipitation Technique29.1 Background and Objectives29.2 Principle of Ferrocyanide Coprecipitation for Cs Removal29.3 Experimental29.4 Results and Discussion29.5 Conclusion
 
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