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Metabolism of Human Diseases - Eckhard Lammert


Year 2014

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Part I BrainOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the BrainBrain-Specific Metabolic/Molecular Pathways and ProcessesInside-In: Metabolites of the Brain Affecting ItselfInside-Out: Metabolites of the Brain Affecting Other TissuesOutside-In: Metabolites of Other Tissues Affecting the BrainFinal RemarksMajor Depressive DisorderIntroduction to Depressive DisordersPathophysiology of Depressive Disorders and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of Depressive DisordersInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesSchizophreniaIntroduction to SchizophreniaPathophysiology of Schizophrenia and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of SchizophreniaInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesEpilepsyIntroduction to EpilepsyPathophysiology of Epilepsy and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of EpilepsyInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesParkinson's DiseaseIntroduction to Parkinson's DiseasePathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of Parkinson's DiseaseInfluence of Treatment on Metabolism and Consequences for PatientsPerspectivesAlzheimer's DiseaseIntroduction to Alzheimer's DiseasePathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease and Metabolic AlterationsImplications for Treatment and Influence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesMigraine and Cluster HeadacheIntroduction to Migraine and Cluster HeadacheMigraineCluster Headache (CH)Pathophysiology of Head Pain and the Trigeminovascular SystemTreatment of Migraine and Cluster HeadacheTreatment of Acute MigraineProphylactic Treatment of MigraineTreatment of Acute Cluster HeadacheProphylactic Treatment of CHPerspectivesMultiple SclerosisIntroduction to Multiple SclerosisPathophysiology of Multiple Sclerosis and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of Multiple SclerosisInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesDown SyndromeIntroduction to Down SyndromePathophysiology of Down Syndrome and Metabolic AlterationsAltered Oxidative Stress and Energy Metabolism in DSTreatment of Down Syndrome and Its Influence on MetabolismPerspectivesPart II Eye OverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the EyeMetabolic and Molecular Pathways and Processes in the EyeProduction of Aqueous HumorRetinal MetabolismThe Role of the Retinal Pigment EpitheliumInside-Out: Signals from the Eye Affecting Other Organs and TissuesOutside-In: Signals and Metabolites Affecting the Function of the EyeFinal RemarksAge-Related Macular DegenerationIntroduction to Age-Related Macular DegenerationPathophysiology of Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of Age-Related Macular DegenerationInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismNutritional Supplementation to Prevent Development of Late-Stage AMDAnti-VEGF Therapy in the Treatment of Exudative AMDPerspectivesGlaucomaIntroduction to GlaucomaPathophysiology of Glaucoma and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of GlaucomaInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesPart III Teeth and BonesOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of Teeth and BonesBone GrowthTooth GrowthCalcium and Phosphate Metabolism and Physiological Reactions in Bone and ToothBone RemodelingCalcium Metabolism in TeethBone and Tooth: Roles in CalciumPhosphate HomeostasisFinal RemarksDental CariesIntroduction to Dental CariesPathophysiology of Dental Caries and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment and Implications for PatientsInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesOsteoporosisIntroduction to OsteoporosisPathogenesis of Bone LossGenetic and Lifestyle Habit Risk Factors and ComorbiditiesEndocrine FactorsNutritional FactorsImmune FactorsOsteoporosis TreatmentNutrition and Physical ActivityAnti-osteoporotic DrugsPerspectivesPart IV JointsOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of JointsJoints ClassificationJoint FormationJoint-Specific Pathways and ProcessesBoneCartilageLigaments and TendonsSynoviumInside-In and Outside-In Signaling: Metabolites Affecting the JointsFinal RemarksOsteoarthritisIntroduction to OsteoarthritisPathophysiology of OsteoarthritisOsteoarthritis ManagementNon-pharmacological TreatmentPharmacological Treatment: Rapid-Acting Symptomatic AgentsDisease-Modifying Osteoarthritis DrugsTargeting Cartilage Catabolism and AnabolismTargeting Synovial Inflammation by Anti-cytokine TherapyTargeting Subchondral Bone RemodelingPerspectivesRheumatoid ArthritisIntroduction to Rheumatoid ArthritisPathophysiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Metabolic AlterationsThe HypothalamicPituitary-Adrenal AxisThe HypothalamicPituitary-Gonadal AxisThe Vitamin D Endocrine SystemCircadian Rhythms and the Immune SystemTailoring Rheumatoid Arthritis Management: Nighttime ModifiedRelease Glucocorticoid TreatmentPerspectivesPart V Gastrointestinal TractOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal TractGastrointestinal Tract-Specific Metabolic/Molecular Pathways and ProcessesThe StomachThe Small Intestine: Duodenum, Jejunum, and IleumThe Large Intestine: Cecum, Colon, and RectumInside-In: Metabolites of the Gastrointestinal Tract Affecting ItselfOutside-In: Metabolites of Other Tissues and External Factors Affecting the Gastrointestinal TractStomachInside-Out: Metabolites of theSmall IntestineGastrointestinal Tract Affecting Other TissuesSmall IntestineColonTypical Pathology of the Gastrointestinal TractStomach and Small IntestineColonFinal RemarksPeptic Ulcer DiseaseIntroduction to Peptic Ulcer DiseasePathophysiology of Peptic Ulcer Disease and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of Peptic Ulcer DiseaseInfluence of Treatment on Metabolism and Consequences for PatientsTherapy of Hp+ PUDTherapy of Hp− PUDPerspectivesGastroenteritisIntroduction to GastroenteritisPathophysiology of GastroenteritisBacteriaVirusesParasitesTreatment of GastroenteritisInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesLactose IntoleranceIntroduction to Lactose IntolerancePathophysiology of Lactose Intolerance and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of Lactose IntoleranceInfluence of Treatment on Metabolism and Consequences for PatientsColorectal CancerIntroduction to Colorectal CancerPathophysiology of Colorectal CancerPathophysiologic Role of the Colonic Microbiota and Its MetabolitesTreatment and Influence on MetabolismPreventionDietary Modifications for Minimizing Risk of Colorectal CancerCancer Screening and ChemopreventionTreatment of Colorectal CancerPerspectivesPart VI PancreasOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the PancreasPancreas-Specific Metabolic Pathways and ProcessesInside-In: Metabolites of the Pancreas Affecting ItselfOutside-In: Metabolites of Other Tissues Affecting the PancreasInside-Out: Metabolites of the Pancreas Affecting Other TissuesFinal RemarksDiabetes MellitusIntroduction to Diabetes MellitusPathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic AlterationsType 1 DiabetesType 2 DiabetesComplicationsDiabetes Treatment and Its Influence on MetabolismPerspectivesPart VII LiverOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the LiverLiver-Specific Metabolic Pathways and ProcessesPlasma Protein SynthesisUrea Synthesis and Acid-base HomeostasisNutrient MetabolismBile Formation and Bile Acid SecretionDetoxificationInside-Out: Metabolites of the Liver Affecting Other TissuesOutside-In: Metabolites of Other Tissues Affecting the LiverFinal RemarksCirrhosisIntroduction to CirrhosisPathophysiology of Cirrhosis and Metabolic AlterationsPortal HypertensionReduced Parenchymal Metabolic FunctionTreatment of Cirrhosis and Related ComplicationsPortal HypertensionAscites and Spontaneous Bacterial PeritonitisHepatorenal SyndromeHepatic EncephalopathyConclusions and PerspectivesPart VIII Fat TissueOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of Fat TissueFat Tissue-Specific Metabolic/ Molecular Pathways and ProcessesInside-In: Metabolites of Fat Tissue Affecting ItselfInside-Out: Metabolites of Fat Tissue Affecting Other TissuesOutside-In: Metabolites of Other Tissues Affecting Fat TissueFinal RemarksMetabolic SyndromeIntroduction to Metabolic SyndromePathophysiology of the Metabolic SyndromeVisceral ObesityDyslipidemiaInsulin ResistanceHypertensionAtherosclerosisPerspectivesPart IX LungOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the LungMechanism of BreathingLung-Specific Metabolic/Molecular Pathways and ProcessesMucus ProductionSurfactant Production and FunctionGas ExchangeOutside-In: Metabolites of Other Tissues Affecting the LungRegulation of BreathingBreathing and PathologiesBreathing and TreatmentInside-Out: Metabolites of the Lung Affecting Other TissuesFunction Under Extreme ConditionsOther FunctionsCoordination with Other OrgansInside-In: Metabolites of the Lung Affecting ItselfLung Perfusion and Usage of AlveoliReflexes and Internal RegulationFinal RemarksAsthmaIntroduction to AsthmaPathophysiology of Asthma and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of Asthma and Airway InflammationPerspectivesChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)Introduction to COPDPathophysiology of COPD and Metabolic AlterationsIntroduction to Treatment and Influence on MetabolismSmoking CessationLong-Acting BronchodilatorsCorticosteroidsPhosphodiesterase-4 InhibitorsOther TherapiesPerspectivesCommunity-Acquired PneumoniaIntroduction to CommunityAcquired PneumoniaPathophysiology of CommunityAcquired PneumoniaTreatment of Community-Acquired PneumoniaInfluence of Treatment on Metabolism and Consequences for PatientsPerspectivesPart X HeartOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the HeartCellular CompositionCardiac Muscle ContractionHeart-Specific Metabolic/Molecular Pathways and ProcessesCardiac Substrate MetabolismInside-In: Metabolites of the Heart Affecting ItselfInside-Out: Metabolites of the Heart Affecting Other TissuesOutside-In: Metabolites of Other Tissues Affecting the HeartFinal RemarksAtherosclerotic Heart DiseaseIntroduction to Atherosclerotic Heart DiseaseCoronary Artery DiseaseAtherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Myocardial Metabolic ChangesMyocardial Ischemia and Heart MetabolismAntianginal Treatment and Influence of Treatment on Cardiac MetabolismPharmacological Treatment of Angina PectorisPerspectivesHeart FailureIntroduction to Heart FailurePathology of Heart FailurePathophysiology of Heart Failure and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of Heart FailureInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesPart XI Blood VesselsOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of Blood VesselsInside-In: Paracrine Signals Acting Within the VesselInside-Out: Vascular Factors Affecting Other TissuesOutside-In: Factors from Other Tissues Affecting Conduit and Resistance VesselsFinal RemarksStrokeIntroduction to StrokePathological Changes in Metabolism Following Stroke OnsetTreatment of StrokesInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismSecondary Treatment OptionsVaricose VeinsIntroduction to Varicose VeinsPathophysiology of Varicose Veins and Metabolic AlterationsHistological ChangesMolecular ChangesMetabolic ChangesTreatment of Varicose VeinsPharmacological Treatments and Their Influence on MetabolismPerspectivesPart XII BloodOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of BloodBlood-Specific Metabolic/Molecular Pathways and ProcessesOxygen TransportCarbon Dioxide (CO2) TransportBuffering and HomeostasisIron TransportCoagulation Pathway and Anticoagulant PropertiesLeukocytesHormonal Transport for Regulation of Whole Body MetabolismLipoprotein MetabolismInside-In: Metabolites of the Blood Affecting the Blood ItselfThe Pentose Phosphate Shunt (or Pentose Phosphate Pathway)Inside-Out: Metabolites of the Blood Affecting Other TissuesOutside-In: Metabolites of Other Tissues Affecting the BloodFinal RemarksSickle Cell DiseaseIntroduction to Sickle Cell DiseasePathophysiology of Sickle Cell Disease and Metabolic AlterationsIntroduction to Treatment, Influence on Metabolism, and Consequences for PatientsPerspectivesHyperlipidemiaIntroduction to HyperlipidemiaPhysiological Lipoprotein MetabolismChylomicronsVery-Low-Density LipoproteinLow-Density LipoproteinHigh-Density Lipoprotein and Reverse Cholesterol TransportApolipoproteinsVarious Hyperlipidemias, Molecular Origin, and Changes in MetabolismPolygenic HyperlipidemiasFamilial HypercholesterolemiaRemnant Removal DiseaseSevere Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG)Secondary HyperlipidemiaTreatment of HyperlipidemiasDietary TreatmentDrug TreatmentMolecular Mechanism and Influence on Metabolism of the Most Common Lipid-Lowering DrugsStatinsEzetimibeBile Acid Sequestrating AgentsOther Lipid-Lowering DrugsPerspectivesPart XIII Immune SystemOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the Immune SystemSpecific Pathways and Metabolic Processes of the Immune System and Its CellsPrimary Lymphoid TissuesSecondary Lymphoid TissuesTertiary Lymphoid TissuesOutside-In: Communication of Stromal Cells with Immune CellsInside-In: Communication Between Immune CellsInside-Out: Communication of Immune Cells with Stromal CellsFinal RemarksMiscommunication in the Immune System as the Basis of DiseaseFeverIntroduction to FeverPhysiology of FeverMechanisms of FeverPyrogensAnapyrexia: The Opposite of FeverMetabolic Changes During FeverIntroduction to Treatment and Influence on MetabolismPerspectivesSepsisIntroduction to SepsisPathophysiology of Sepsis and Metabolic AlterationsNeuroendocrine ComponentInflammatory ComponentInsulin Resistance and Stress HyperglycemiaChanges in Body CompositionInfluence of Treatment on Metabolism and Consequences for PatientsPerspectivesAllergiesIntroduction to AllergiesPathophysiology of Allergies and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of AllergiesInfluence of Treatment on Metabolism and Consequences for PatientsPerspectivesPart XIV KidneyOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the KidneysKidney-Specific Metabolic and Molecular Pathways and ProcessesInside-Out: Metabolites of theInside-In: Metabolites of the Kidney Affecting the Kidney ItselfKidney Affecting Other TissuesOutside-In: Metabolites of OtherTissues Affecting the KidneyFinal RemarksHypertensionIntroduction to HypertensionPathophysiology of Hypertension and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of HypertensionInfluence of Treatment on Metabolism and Consequences for PatientsPerspectivesChronic Kidney DiseaseIntroduction to Chronic Kidney DiseasePathophysiology of Chronic Kidney Disease and Metabolic AlterationsCardiovascular DiseaseMineral and Bone DisordersAcid-base and Electrolyte DisturbancesAnemiaUremiaIntroduction to Treatment and Influence on MetabolismRisk of CVDBone and Mineral MetabolismAcid-base and ElectrolytesAnemiaUremiaPerspectivesGoutIntroduction to GoutPathophysiology of Gout and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of GoutInfluence of Treatment on Metabolism and Consequences for PatientsAllopurinol (An XO Inhibitor)Febuxostat (Non-purine XO Inhibitor)Uricosuric DrugsUricasePerspectivesUrinary Tract InfectionsIntroduction to Urinary Tract InfectionsPathophysiology of Urinary Tract Infections and Metabolic AlterationsTreatment of Urinary Tract InfectionsInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectivesKidney StonesIntroduction to Kidney StonesPathophysiology of Kidney Stones and Metabolic AlterationsEpidemiology and Evaluation of NephrolithiasisTreatment of Kidney StonesGeneral PointsInfluence of Treatment on Metabolism and Consequences for PatientsTreatment of Calcium Stones due to HypercalciuriaTreatment of Oxalate Stones due to Hyperoxaluria or Enteric HyperoxaluriaTreatment of Calcium-Containing Stones due to HypocitraturiaTreatment of Uric Acid-Containing Stones due to Hyperuricemia/Gouty DiathesisTreatment of Distal Renal Tubular AcidosisTreatment of Struvite Stones due to InfectionTreatment of Cystine Stones due to CystinuriaPerspectivesPart XV Reproductive SystemOverviewAnatomy and Physiology of the Reproductive SystemReproductive Organ-Specific Metabolic PathwaysInside-In: Signals in the Reproductive OrgansOutside-In: Hypothalamus/ Pituitary/Reproductive Organ AxisSignals from the HypothalamusSignals from the Pituitary GlandInside-Out: Signals from Reproductive Organs Affecting Other OrgansPregnancyMenopauseAnatomy and Physiology of the Human BreastTissue-Specific Metabolic Pathways of the BreastOutside-In: Signaling of the BreastInside-Out: Signaling of the BreastFinal RemarksBreast CancerIntroduction to Breast CancerAnatomy and Development of the Mammary GlandPathophysiology of Breast CancerTreatment of Breast CancerPerspectivesProstate CancerIntroduction to Prostate CancerPathophysiology of Prostate CancerAndrogen Deprivation Therapy and Mitigating Its Adverse Metabolic ImpactIntermittent ADTPeripheral Androgen BlockadeCastration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and Approaches to Treat ItAndrogen Synthesis InhibitionSecond-Generation AR AntagonistsPerspectivesPart XVI CancerOverviewIntroduction to CancerCancer Metabolism and Possible OutcomesChanges in MetabolismCommon Mutations Affecting MetabolismTreatment of CancerInfluence of Treatment on MetabolismPerspectives
 
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