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Organizational Behaviour - Dr A Mustafa

Year 2013


PREFACECHAPTER 1. Organizational Behaviour (O.B.)OVERVIEWHISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL STUDYMETHODS USED IN ORGANIZATIONAL STUDIESDEFINITION OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR (O.B.)NATURE AND SCOPE (FEATURES) OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTUREORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PROCESSPROCESS OF BEHAVIOURMODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOURCHAPTER 2. GROUP DYNAMICS DEFINITION OF GROUPMEANING OF GROUPIMPORTANCE OF GROUP DYNAMICSFIVE PROPOSITIONS ABOUT GROUPSCHARACTERISTICS OF GROUPTYPES OF GROUPFormal GroupDifferent Types of Formal GroupsInformal GroupsWhy do People form and Join Groups?THEORIES OF GROUP FORMATIONHoman's TheoryExchange Theory of Reward and Cost OutcomeBalance TheoryPropinquity TheoryGROUP BEHAVIOURGROUP NORMSGROUP ROLETypes of Group RolesRole IdentityRole AmbiguityEnforcing Group NormsCHAPTER 3. GROUP COHESIVENESS AND GROUP DEVELOPMENTGROUP COHESIONGROUP COHESIVENESSFactors Affecting Group CohesivenessConsequences of Group CohesivenessHow to Increase Group CohesivenessManagerial Actions for Increasing or Encouraging CohesivenessManagerial Action to Decrease or Discourage CohesivenessRelationship between Group Cohesiveness and ProductivityGroup DevelopmentStages of Group DevelopmentGROUP DECISION-MAKING TECHNIQUESOVERVIEWProblem Analysis vs. Decision MakingProblem AnalysisDecision MakingEveryday TechniquesCognitive and Personal BiasesCOGNITIVE STYLES Influence of Briggs Myers TypeOptimizing vs. SatisficingCombinatoral vs. PositionalNeuroscience PerspectiveFormal SystemsDECISION MAKING IN SOCIAL SETTINGMoral Dimension of Decision MakingDecision Making in HealthcareDecision Making in Business and ManagementDecision-makers and InfluencersDecision Support SystemsEFFECTIVE GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUESThe Nature of Group Decision MakingAttributes of the DecisionStyles of Group Decision MakingCHAPTER 4. GROUP DECISION MAKINGDEFINITION OF DECISION MAKINGCHARACTERISTICS OF DECISION MAKINGNATURE OF DECISION MAKINGTYPES OF DECISION MAKINGINDIVIDUAL AND GROUP DECISIONSDECISION MAKING PROCESSSteps in Decision MakingDithering on DecisionsDECISION MAKING STYLESWhy Group Decisions are more Qualitative than Individual Decisions?Advantages of Group Decision MakingDisadvantages of Group Decision MakingTechniques of Group Decisions MakingDisadvantagesDialectic Decision MethodGROUP SIZE AND DECISION MAKINGThe Risky ShiftINFLUENCE PROCESSES IN GROUPSCONSENSUS DECISION MAKING IN GROUPCHAPTER 5. WORK MOTIVATIONTHEORIES OF MOTIVATIONMaslow's TheoryMaslow's Need HierarchyHerzberg's Motivation Hygiene TheoryDistinction between Maslow's and Herzberg's TheoriesMcClelland's Need TheoryMcGregor's Participation TheoryComparison of Theories X and YUrwick's Theory ZHistory of Theory ZArgyris's TheoryVroom's Expectancy TheoryValance x ExpectancyThe Porter and Lawler ModelClayton Alderfer's ERG TheoryProcess Theories of MotivationPorter and Lawler Model of MotivationThe Various Elements of Porter and Lawler ModelTOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OFMOTIVATION OR INCENTIVESINCENTIVESCHAPTER 6. EMPLOYEE'S MORALEDEFINITION OF EMPLOYEE'S MORALEIndividual and Group MoraleHigh or Low MoraleMorale and MotivationMorale and ProductivityFactors Affecting MoraleCauses of Low MoraleWarning Signs of Low MoraleSigns of High MoraleFactors Improving MoraleImportance of MoraleMorale and Motivation ObjectivesCharacteristics of MoraleImportance of MoraleFactors Influencing MoraleMotivation is a Latin word, which means to move.What is motivation?Nature/characteristics of motivationClassification of motivationExamples of key secondary needs CONFLICTDefinition of ConflictConflict: DefinitionCommon Examples of Conflict Character vs. SelfHistoryConflict TheoryPhases of ConflictTypes of ConflictWays of addressing conflictOngoing ConflictsDefinitions of Conflict on the WebVerbConflictClarifying Confusion About ConflictTypes of Managerial Actions that Cause Workplace ConflictsKey Managerial Actions/Structures to Minimize ConflictsWays People Deal With ConflictTo Manage a Conflict Within Yourself - "Core Process"To Manage a Conflict With Another - "Core Process"Object Relations TheorySelf PsychologyJacques Lacan/Lacanian PsychoanalysisInterpersonal PsychoanalysisCulturalist PsychoanalystsRelational PsychoanalysisInterpersonal-Relational PsychoanalysisIntersubjective PsychoanalysisModern PsychoanalysisPsychopathology (mental disturbances) Adult PatientsChildhood OriginsTreatmentTechniquesVariations in TechniqueGroup Therapy and Play TherapyCultural VariationsCost and Length of TreatmentTraining and ResearchStages in Conflict (or) Conflict ProcessAvoidingCompetingCollaboratingCompromising AccommodatingStimulating ConflictUses of Five Styles of Conflict Management Conflict-Handling Style (Appropriate situation)CHAPTER 7. FAVOURABLE PHYSICAL WORKING ENVIRONMENT AND PRODUCTIVITYDefinition of monotonyBoredomFatigueMonotony, Boredom, Fatigue and its Relationship with Human EfficiencyCountering the Effects of Monotony, Boredom and FatigueIncreasing Industrial Productivity through Favourable Working EnvironmentsChronic FatigueFactors that May Results in Operator FatigueHow to Counteract FatigueScoring and AnalysisLevel of MeasurementRasch ModelPronunciationInterpreting Your Thomas Killman Conflict Mode Inventory ScoresCHAPTER 8. STRESS MANAGEMENTDefinition of stress managementPersonality and stressCauses of stress Prime CausesConsequences of stress Insidious EffectsEmotions and ailmentsStress and genderCoping strategiesCoping strategies for stressIndividual approachesOrganizational approachesHow to manage stress?Stress management techniquesModels of stress management Transactional ModelEmotionEmotions and the Topography of the MindFeeling TheoriesEmotions and Intentional ObjectsPsychological and Evolutionary ApproachesCognitivist TheoriesPerceptual TheoriesThe Ontology of EmotionsRationality and EmotionsEmotions and Self-knowledgeMorality and EmotionsSummary and Guide to the Recent LiteratureConclusion: Adequacy Conditions on Philosophical Theories of EmotionPlutchik's Wheel of EmotionsEmotions by GroupsLojban EmotionsEmotion Annotation and Representation Language (EARL)ClassificationTheories of EmotionsEvolutionary BiologySociologyPsychotherapyComputer ScienceNotable TheoristsActivityAttitude PsychologyAttitude FormationAttitude ChangeEmotion and Attitude ChangeComponents of Emotion AppealsValuesIntroduction to ValuesCHAPTER 9. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MeaningForces for changeTypes of changesResistance to changeIndividual level changeCauses of resistance to change by employeesCauses of resistance to change by employers and managementCHAPTER 10. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENTMeaning and definition of organizational development (o.d.)Organization Development (O.D.)Process of Organizational Development Action Research Model of Organizational DevelopmentTechniques of Organizational Development or Organizational Development InterventionsConditions for Success (or) Steps in Introducing Change Successfully or Overcoming Resistance to ChangeCHAPTER 11. HAWTHORNE STUDIES Definition of hawthorne studiesIllumination ExperimentRelay Assembly Test Room ExperimentsExperiments in Interviewing WorkersHistoryRelay Assembly ExperimentsInterviewing ProgramBank Wiring Room ExperimentsInterpretations and criticisms of the hawthorne studiesCHAPTER 12. PERSONALITYDefinition of personalityPersonality and colourPersonality traitsPersonality traits and organizational behaviourPhilosophical assumptionsPersonality theoriesTrait TheoriesType TheoriesHistory 1890s1900-1940s1940s-2000sPsychoanalytic TheoriesTheoriesThe conscious and unconscious mindThe Structure of the Mind According to FreudMore About Psychoanalytic TheoryHistory of TrainingPsychoanalysis in BritainResearchCriticismCharges of FascismScientific CriticismTheoretical CriticismNew Freudian TheoryEarly LifeThe Adlerian SchoolEmigration and DeathBasic PrinciplesAdler's Approach to PersonalityPsychodynamics and TeleologyConstructivism and MetaphysicsHolismTypologyOn Birth OrderOn HomosexualityParent EducationSpirituality, Ecology and CommunityPublicationsKaren HorneyTheory of NeurosisMoving Toward PeopleMoving Against PeopleMoving Away from PeopleNeo-FreudianismTheory of SelfFeminine PsychologyKaren Horney ClinicNeo-Freudian PsychologistsBehaviorist TheoriesSocial Cognitive TheoriesHumanistic TheoriesBiopsychological TheoriesPERSONALITY TESTSHolland's Personality TheoryStages in the Development of Human PersonalityHow Personality is MeasuredCATTELL'S 16 PERSONALITY FACTOR MODELFACTOR ANALYSISCRITICAL REVIEWCHAPTER 13. PERCEPTIONDefinition of perceptionNature of perceptionPerceptionFactors which affect perceptionPerceptionPsychological therapyFoot-in-the-door TechniqueChallenges and CriticismsDisproof of Self-Perception Theory?Reviving Self-Perception Theory: The Truce ExperimentSelf-Perception TheoryResearchPerception and RealityPerception-in-ActionPerceptual ThresholdTheories of PerceptionCategories of PerceptionScientific Accounts of PerceptionPhilosophical Accounts of PerceptionCognitive Processing and EpiphenomenalismPerceptual SpaceManagerial applications/importance of perceptionPolitical spillover theory and internal political efficacyAttitudeAttitude formationImplicit and explicit attitudesJung's definitionCHAPTER 14. LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATIONDefinition of learning and behaviour modificationIntroduction-learningCharacteristics of learningTypes of learningSimple non-associative learning HabituationAssociative learningPerceptual LearningVisual LearningAuditory LearningS-R LearningLearning TheoryLearning Theory (Education)Other Learning TheoriesLearning processLearning as a process - task-conscious or acquisition learning and learning-conscious or formalized learningTask-conscious or Acquisition LearningLearning-conscious or Formalized LearningLearning as a Process - Learning TheoryLearning is an Active ProcessLearning StylesPrinciples of learningBasic levels of learning Domains of LearningCognitive DomainPractical Application of Learning ObjectivesLearning-Physical SkillsRetention of LearningPraise Stimulates LearningTransfer of LearningSocial learning theoryTheories shaping behaviour (learning theories) Classical ConditioningTYPES OF LEARNING DOMAINS OF LEARNINGMATHEMATICAL MODELS OF LEARNINGLEARNING AS A PRODUCTLEARNING AS A PROCESS — LEARNING THEORYTHEORIES OF LEARNINGHierarchy of ControlCurriculumCoaching MethodsConclusionMeasuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association TestMeasuring Implicit AttitudesTHE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOURDISPOSITIONAL PREDICTION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOURACCOUNTING FOR ACTIONS IN SPECIFIC CONTEXTS: THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOURTHEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOURTHE ROLE OF BELIEFS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOURTHE SUFFICIENCY OF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOURBEHAVIOURISM INTRODUCTIONCOGNITIVE THEORYCHAPTER 15. ABILITY POWER AND ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICSAbilityDefinition of powerCoercive Power (The Stick)Reward PowerLegitimate PowerReferent PowerExpert PowerInter-personal PowerBalance of PowerTypes of PowerRational Choice FrameworkMarxismTarnowLukesOne-dimensionalTofferUnmarked CategoriesRepresentation/CounterpowerPsychological ResearchManaging Organizational PowerPrimitive SocietiesPatriarchal SocietiesThe StateThe State and PropertyThe State and The Justice SystemThe StateThe State and the Executive SystemThe Varieties of Political ExperienceAs an Academic DisciplineLeft-right politicsAuthoritarian-libertarian PoliticsWorld PoliticsCentral and State GovernmentsLegislative BranchState GovernmentJudicial BranchPolitical issues Social IssuesOrganizational/workplace politicsCHAPTER 16. JOB SATISFACTION (J.S.) AND ABSENTEEISMDefinition of job satisfactionJob satisfactionModels of job satisfaction Affect TheoryAbsenteeism may be a Symptom of other ProblemsWork is An Element of Self-EsteemAttitudes and job satisfactionPersonal VariablesRelationship between Job Satisfaction and ProductivityJob-satisfaction - Applying Herzberg's TheoryCHAPTER 17. LEADERSHIPMeaning of leadership Leadership qualities or traitsLeadership stylesDifferent approaches or theories of leadershipThe Future of Leadership TheoryThe ModelBehavioural ElementsBlake Mouton Managerial GridConclusionVroom's Normative Participation Model - How Participatory Should You BeTransformational Leadership ModelsPersonal Characteristics of Transformational LeadersFollowers' Theory or Acceptance TheorySystem TheoryFielder's Contingency Model of LeadershipDifferent leadership stylesImportance of leadershipFunctions of leadershipProblem-solvingGestalt PsychologyLegacyCHAPTER 18. COMMUNICATIONMeaning of communicationProcess of communicationWritten communicationVarious types of communicationImportance of effective communicationFeatures of communicationsPurposes of communicationPrinciples of effective communicationCHAPTER 19. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)Definition of total quality management (TQM)Total quality management Evolution and Definition of QualityQuality - manifestationElements of TQMBasic concepts of TQMHistorical background of TQMFundamental principles of TQMPrinciple of TQMCHAPTER 20. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTUREDefinition of organizational cultureCultureDeal and KennedyCharles HandyEdgar ScheinArthur F. CarmazziCulture ClustersElementsOrganizational Culture and ChangeEntrepreneurial CultureElements of Entrepreneurial CultureCritical ViewsSchemaMergers, organizational culture and cultural leadershipCHAPTER 21. WORK TEAMWork groupWORK TEAMCHAPTER 22. NEGOTIATIONWhat is negotiation?Approaches to negotiationApproaches to negotiationPlanning for NegotiationsSources of Power in NegotiationObstacles to NegotiationTypes of negotiation in organizationsIs negotiation necessary ?Why Negotiate?Ten Ways to Generate More IdeasOther Negotiation StylesAdversary or Partner?Emotion in NegotiationPositive Affect in NegotiationNegative Affect in NegotiationConditions for Emotion Affect in NegotiationThe Effect of the Partner's EmotionsProblems with Lab. Negotiation StudiesThe Pervasive Impact of Culture on International NegotiationsLanguageDifferences at the Level of LanguageNonverbal BehaviorsDistinctive negotiation behaviors of 15 cultural groupsDifferences in managerial values as pertinent to negotiationsCompetitiveness and EqualityTimeDifferences in thinking and decision-making processesImplications for managers and negotiatorsTeam NegotiationsThe eight-stage negotiation processFacilitatorThird party intervenerThe values - attitude - behaviorPutting virtuous values into practiceBehavioral standards and codes of conduct: the safety netThe ethical behavior formulaValue StatementsCodes of ConductExecutive ModelingTraining and CommunicationSystems that embody valuesMechanisms to discuss difficult casesRecommendations for Creating Ethical Organizational cultureThe Value of Organizational Values What's the value in values?Five ways to live out valuesCHAPTER 23. ORGANIZATIONAL ETHICSIntroductionSocial responsibility and organizational ethics Business EthicsCHAPTER 24. GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND COGNITIVE DISSONANCEIntroductionModels of group developmentDevelopmental stagesForming/PreaffiliationNorming/IntimacyPerforming/DifferentiationAdjourning/SeparationSUMMARYWhat are the stages of group development? Stages of Group DevelopmentTheories and modelsKurt Lewin's Individual Change ProcessTickman's Stages ModelTubbs' Systems ModelFisher's Theory of Decision Emergence in GroupsPoole's Multiple-sequences ModelMcGrath's Time, Interaction and Performance (TIP) TheoryGersick's Punctuated Equilibrium ModelWheelan's Integrated Model of Group DevelopmentMorgan, Salas and Glickman's Team ModelFurther ChallengesCognitive dissonanceTheory and researchBen Franklin EffectBoring Task ExperimentForbidden Toy ExperimentPost-decision DissonanceChallenges and QualificationsModelling in Neural NetworksCognitive Dissonance TheoryREFERENCES
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